M. Barlow acknowledges support from the UCAR–IRI Postdoctoral Fellowship. H. Cullen acknowledges support from the NOAA Postdoctoral Program in Climate and Global Change. We thank C. Ropelewski, P. Arkin, T. Barnston, and J. Zotter for useful discussions, and Sumant Nigam for the use of his linear model. IRI is supported by the NOAA Office of Global Programs, Columbia University, and the government of Taiwan.
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