Part of the work was carried out during the author's sabbatical leave at the University of Tokyo and the Ocean University of Qingdao. The author would like to thank Prof. T. Yamagata of the Tokyo University and Prof. Q. Liu of the Ocean University of Qingdao for their hospitality. The author would also like to thank Dr. Haijun Yang for providing the numerical example in Fig. 7 and two reviewers for helpful comments. This work is supported by NOAA, NASA, and DOE.
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