This work is based upon part of the first author's Ph.D. dissertation at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, under the advice of Dr. V. Ramanathan (chair), Drs. C. H. Gibson, G. Magnusdottir, J. P. Severinghaus, R. C. J. Somerville, and L. D. Talley. This research was supported in part by Grant NSF ATM9405024 to the Center for Clouds, Chemistry and Climate (C4) and in part by NASA CERES Grant NASA5-NAS1-98141. Conversations with Drs. M. Cane, J. Chiang, C. Chung, D. L. Hartmann, T. N. Krishnamurti, K.-M. Lau, J. D. Neelin, S. Nigam, S. Sherwood, B. Wang, P. J. Webster, and E. Wilcox, were useful. Helpful comments and suggestions from Dr. Isaac Held, Dr. Gabriel Lau, and two anonymous reviewers are greatly appreciated.
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