The author would like to thank Dr. Clara Deser and Dr. Peter Gent for useful discussions during the course of this study and for comments on a draft manuscript of the paper. I am also grateful to Dr. John Fyfe and two anonymous reviewers for their careful reading and constructive comments. Thanks is also given to the numerous researchers involved in the development of the CCSM2. This research was supported by an International Arctic Research Center grant and a grant from the National Science Foundation Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) project, phase III.
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