The daily mean NCEP–NCAR reanalysis were obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Diagnostics Center. We thank Dr. A. J. Miller of the Climate Prediction Center at NCEP and Dr. Paul A. Newman of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch (Code 916) at NASA GSFC for producing the stratospheric analyses. We also thank the Goddard DAAC for distributing the data as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program. We thank David Rind, Richard Seager, James Hansen, Drew Shindell, and two reviewers for very useful comments on the manuscript. JP's research is supported by the NASA Climate and NASA Atmospheric Chemistry and Analysis programs. NH is supported by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Grant UCSIO-CU-02165401-SCF and by a Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory postdoctoral fellowship.
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