We thank Scott Kampa for data processing. This research was supported by the Electric Power Research Institute, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Grants NA86GP0572, NA16GP1582, and NA16GP1583), the U.S. National Science Foundation (Grant ATM-9911417), and the Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research at the University of Iowa. We thank Filippo Giorgi and Christine Shields for consultation on RegCM2 and the anonymous reviewers for helpful comments that improved the paper.
Arakawa, A., , and W. H. Schubert, 1974: Interaction of a cumulus cloud ensemble with the large-scale environment, Part I. J. Atmos. Sci., 31 , 674–701.
Augustine, J. A., , and F. Caracena, 1994: Lower-tropospheric precursors to nocturnal MCS development over the central United States. Wea. Forecasting, 9 , 116–135.
Chen, M., , R. E. Dickenson, , X. Zeng, , and A. N. Hahmann, 1996: Comparison of precipitation observed over the continental United States to that simulated by a climate model. J. Climate, 9 , 2233–2249.
Fritsch, J. M., , R. J. Kane, , and C. R. Chelius, 1986: The contribution of mesoscale convective weather systems to the warm-season precipitation in the United States. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 25 , 1333–1345.
Giorgi, F., , and M. R. Marinucci, 1996: An investigation of the sensitivity of simulated precipitation to model resolution and its implications for climate studies. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124 , 148–166.
Giorgi, F., , and C. Shields, 1999: Tests of precipitation parameterizations available in the latest version of the near regional climate model (RegCM) over the continental U.S. J. Geophys. Res., 104 , 6353–6376.
Giorgi, F., , F. M. R. Marinucci, , and G. T. Bates, 1993a: Development of a second-generation regional climate model (Reg CM2). Part I: Boundary-layer and radiative transfer processes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121 , 2794–2813.
Giorgi, F., , F. M. R. Marinucci, , G. T. Bates, , and G. De Canio, 1993b: Development of a second-generation regional climate model (Reg CM2). Part II: Convective processes and assimilation of lateral boundary conditions. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121 , 2814–2832.
Gutowski, W. J., , Y. Chen, , and Z. Ötles, 1997: Atmospheric water-vapor transport in NCEP reanalyses: Comparison with river discharge in the central United States. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 1957–1969.
Hammer, G., , and P. Steurer, 2000: Data documentation for hourly precipitation data. TD-3240, National Climatic Data Center, 17 pp. [Available from National Climatic Data Center, 151 Patton Ave., Asheville, NC 20801–5001.].
Hsie, E-Y., , R. A. Anthes, , and D. Keyser, 1984: Simulations of frontogenesis in a moist atmosphere using alternative parameterizations of condensation and precipitation. J. Atmos. Sci., 41 , 2701–2716.
Jones, R. G., , J. M. Murphy, , and M. Noguer, 1995: Simulation of climate change over Europe using a nested regional-climate model. I: Assessment of control climate, including sensitivity to location of boundaries. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 121 , 1413–1450.
Mearns, L. O., , F. Giorgi, , L. McDaniel, , and C. Shields, 1995: Analysis of daily variability of precipitation in a nested regional climate model: Comparison with observations and doubled CO2 results. Global Planet. Change, 10 , 55–78.
Mielke, P. W., 1991: The application of multivariate permuation techniques based on distance functions in the earth sciences. Earth Sci. Rev., 31 , 55–71.
Pal, J. S., , E. E. Small, , and E. A. B. Eltahir, 2000: Simulation of regional-scale water and energy budgets: Representation of subgrid cloud and precipitation processes within RegCM. J. Geophys. Res., 105 , 29579–29594.
Pan, Z., , J. H. Christensen, , R. W. Arritt, , W. J. Gutowski Jr., , E. S. Takle, , and F. Otieno, 2001: Evaluation of uncertainties in regional climate change simulations. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , 17735–17752.
Rinke, A., , A. H. Lynch, , and K. Dethloff, 2000: Intercomparison of Arctic regional climate simulations: Case studies of January and June 1990:. J. Geophys. Res., 105 , 29669–29683.
Takle, E. S., and Coauthors. 1999: Project to Intercompare Regional Climate Simulations (PIRCS): Description and initial results. J. Geophys. Res., 104 , 19443–19461.
Tucker, D. F., , P. W. Mielke Jr., , and E. R. Reiter, 1989: The verification of numerical models with multivariate randomized block permutation procedures. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 40 , 181–188.