This work was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation, the NASA Land Surface Hydrology Program and by the NOAA Office of Global Programs. In particular, SM was supported by NSF Grant ATM-9901357, NOAA Grant NA66GPO268, and NASA Grant NAG8-1514 for this study. RJO was supported in this study by NOAA Grant NA66GPO278 and NASA Grant NAG8-1515. AWN was supported by NSF Grant ATM-9900687. Computational resources were provided by the Scientific Computing Division of NCAR under project 35851000. NCAR is supported by the National Science Foundation.
Armstrong, R. L., and M. J. Brodzik, 2002: Northern Hemisphere EASE-Grid Weekly Snow Cover and Sea Ice Extent, Version 2. National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, CO, CD-ROM.
Baker, D. G., D. L. Ruschy, R. H. Skaggs, and D. B. Wall, 1992: Air temperature and radiation depressions associated with a snowcover. J. Appl. Meteor., 31 , 247–254.
Barnett, T. P., L. Dumenil, U. Schlese, E. Roeckner, and M. Latif, 1989: The effect of Eurasian snow cover on regional and global climate variations. J. Atmos. Sci., 46 , 661–685.
Bonan, G. B., 1998: The land surface climatology of the NCAR Land Surface Model coupled to the NCAR Community Climate Model. J. Climate, 11 , 1307–1326.
Clark, M. P., and M. C. Serreze, 2000: Effects of variations in east Asian snow cover on modulating atmospheric circulation over the North Pacific Ocean. J. Climate, 13 , 3700–3710.
Dewey, K. F., 1977: Daily maximum and minimum temperature forecasts and the influence of snow cover. Mon. Wea. Rev., 105 , 1594–1597.
Dickson, R. R., and J. Namias, 1976: North American influence on the circulation and climate of the North Atlantic sector. Mon. Wea. Rev., 104 , 1255–1265.
Foster, J., M. Owe, and A. Rango, 1983: Snow cover and temperature relationships in North America and Eurasia. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 22 , 460–469.
Groisman, P. Ya, T. R. Karl, and R. W. Knight, 1994: Observed impact of snow cover on the heat balance and the rise of continental spring temperatures. Science, 263 , 198–200.
Groisman, P. Ya, E. L. Genikhovich, R. S. Bradley, and B. M. Ilyin, 1997: Assessing surface–atmosphere interactions using former Soviet Union standard meteorological network data. Part II: Cloud and snow cover effects. J. Climate, 10 , 2184–2199.
Gutzler, D. S., and J. W. Preston, 1997: Evidence for a relationship between spring snow cover in North America and summer rainfall in New Mexico. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24 , 2207–2210.
Hack, J. J., J. T. Kiehl, and J. Hurrell, 1998: The hydrologic and thermodynamic characteristics of the NCAR CCM3. J. Climate, 11 , 1179–1206.
Heim Jr., R., and K. F. Dewey, 1984: Circulation patterns and temperature fields associated with extensive snow cover on the North American continent. Phys. Geogr., 4 , 66–85.
Janowiak, J. E., and G. D. Bell, 1998: Changes in the seasonal distribution of daily U.S. temperature, precipitation, and snowfall associated with the ENSO cycle. Proc. 23rd Annual Climate Diagnostics and Prediction Workshop, Miami, FL, NOAA/CPC, 319–322.
Kiehl, J. T., J. J. Hack, G. B. Bonan, B. A. Boville, D. L. Williamson, and P. J. Rasch, 1998: The National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model: CCM3. J. Climate, 11 , 1131–1149.
Kunkel, K. E., and J. R. Angel, 1999: Relationship of ENSO to snowfall and related cyclone activity in the contiguous United States to ENSO. J. Geophys. Res., 104 (D16) 19425–19434.
Leathers, D. J., A. W. Ellis, and D. A. Robinson, 1995: Characteristics of temperature depressions associated with snow cover across the northeast United States. J. Appl. Meteor., 34 , 381–390.
Marshall, S., and R. J. Oglesby, 1994: An improved snow hydrology for GCMs. Part 1: Snow cover fraction, albedo, grain size, and age. Climate Dyn., 10 , 21–37.
Marshall, S., R. J. Oglesby, K. A. Maasch, and G. T. Bates, 1999: Improving climate model representations of snow hydrology. Environ. Modell. Software, 14 , 327–334.
Oglesby, R. J., 1990: Sensitivity of glaciation to initial snow cover, CO2, snow albedo, and oceanic roughness in the NCAR CCM. Climate Dyn., 3 , 135–156.
Oglesby, R. J., S. Marshall, J. O. Roads, and F. R. Robertson, 2001: Diagnosing warm season precipitation over the GCIP region from a model and reanalysis. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , 3357–3369.
Oglesby, R. J., S. Marshall, J. O. Roads, and F. R. Robertson, 2002: Thresholds in atmosphere–soil moisture interactions: Results from climate model studies. J. Geophys. Res., 107 (D14) 4224. doi: 10.1029/2001JD001045.
Serreze, M. C., M. P. Clark, R. L. Armstrong, D. A. McGinnis, and R. S. Pulwarty, 1999: Characteristics of the western United States snowpack from snowpack telemetry (SNOTEL). Water Resour. Res., 35 , 2145–2160.
Serreze, M. C., M. P. Clark, and A. Frei, 2001: Characteristics of large snowfall events in the montane western United States as examined using snowpack telemetry (SNOTEL) data. Water Resour. Res., 37 , 675–688.
Smith, S. R., and J. J. O'Brien, 2001: Regional snowfall distributions associated with ENSO: Implications for seasonal forecasting. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82 , 1179–1191.
Walsh, J. E., D. R. Tucek, and M. R. Peterson, 1982: Seasonal snow cover and short-term climate fluctuations over the United States. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110 , 1474–1485.