The need for an improved solar transmission parameterization specific to climate-scale applications became apparent at the 2001 Surfside Climate Workshop, held at Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Bill Large and Peter Gent provided information regarding the workings and requirements of climate models that helped shape the parameterization. Curt Mobley allowed the use of the HYDROLIGHT model. Catherine Gautier supplied the SBDART model. Chris Fairall, Jeff Hare, and Frank Bradley kindly shared pyranometer data recorded during EPIC. Discussions with Dave Siegel were helpful, as always. Support is from the National Science Foundation (OCE-0002902).
Charlock, T. P., 1982: Mid-latitude model analysis of solar radiation, the upper layers of the sea, and seasonal climate. J. Geophys. Res., 87:8923–8930.
Dickey, T. D., and J. J. Simpson, 1983: The influence of optical water type on the diurnal response of the upper ocean. Tellus, 35B:142–154.
Gordon, H. R., and A. Morel, 1983: Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery, a Review. Vol. 4, Lecture Notes on Coastal and Estuarine Studies, Springer Verlag, 114 pp.
Katsaros, K. B., , L. A. McMurdie, , R. J. Lind, , and J. E. DeVault, 1985: Albedo of a water surface, spectral variation, effects of atmospheric transmittance, sun angle and wind speed. J. Geophys. Res., 90:7313–7321.
Lewis, M. R., , M-E. Carr, , G. C. Feldman, , W. Esaias, , and C. McClain, 1990: Influence of penetrating solar radiation on the heat budget of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Nature, 347:543–545.
Mobley, C. D., 1989: A numerical model for the computation of radiance distributions in natural waters with wind roughened surfaces. Limnol. Oceanogr., 34:1473–1483.
Morel, A., 1988: Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters). J. Geophys. Res., 93:10749–10768.
Morel, A., 1991: Light and marine photosynthesis: A spectral model with geochemical and climatological implications. Progress in Oceanography, Vol. 26, Pergamon, 263–306.
Morel, A., and D. Antoine, 1994: Heating rate within the upper ocean in relation to its bio-optical state. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24:1652–1665.
Murtugudde, R., , J. Beauchamp, , C. McClain, , and A. Busalacchi, 2002: Effects of penetrative radiation on upper tropical ocean circulation. J. Climate, 15:470–486.
Nakamoto, S., , S. Prasanna Kumar, , J. M. Oberhuber, , J. Ishizaka, , K. Muneyama, , and R. Frouin, 2001: Response of the equatorial Pacific to chlorophyll pigments in a mixed layer isopycnal ocean general circulation model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28:2021–2024.
Ohlmann, J. C., and D. A. Siegel, 2000: Ocean radiant heating. Part II: Parameterizing solar radiation transmission through the upper ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30:1849–1865.
Ohlmann, J. C., , D. A. Siegel, , and C. Gautier, 1996: Ocean mixed layer radiant heating and solar penetration: A global analysis. J. Climate, 9:2265–2280.
Ohlmann, J. C., , D. A. Siegel, , and L. Washburn, 1998: Radiant heating of the western equatorial Pacific during TOGA-COARE. J. Geophys. Res., 103:5379–5395.
Ohlmann, J. C., , D. A. Siegel, , and C. D. Mobley, 2000: Ocean radiant heating. Part I: Optical influences. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30:1833–1848.
Petzold, T. J., 1972: Volume scattering functions for selected natural waters. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Visibility Lab. SIO Ref., Rep. 72–78, 79 pp.
Pierluissi, J. H., and C. E. Maragoudakis, 1986: Molecular transmission band models for LOWTRAN. AFGL Tech. Rep. 86-0272, Air Force Geophysical Lab., Hanscom Air Force Base, MA, 63 pp.
Pope, R. M., and E. S. Fry, 1997: Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements. Appl. Opt., 36:8710–8723.
Preisendorfer, R. W., and C. D. Mobley, 1986: Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened sea surface. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 16:1293–1316.
Ricchiazzi, P., , S. Yang, , C. Gautier, , and D. Sowle, 1998: SBDART: A research and teaching software tool for plane-parallel radiative transfer in the earth's atmosphere. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79:2101–2114.
Schneider, E. K., and Z. Zhu, 1998: Sensitivity of the simulated annual cycle of sea surface temperature in the equatorial Pacific to sunlight penetration. J. Climate, 11:1932–1950.
Siegel, D. A., , J. C. Ohlmann, , L. Washburn, , R. R. Bidigare, , C. Nosse, , E. Fields, , and Y. Zhou, 1995: Solar radiation, phytoplankton pigments and radiant heating of the equatorial Pacific warm pool. J. Geophys. Res., 100:4885–4891.
Simpson, J. J., and T. D. Dickey, 1981: The relationship between downward irradiance and upper ocean structure. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 11:309–323.
Stamnes, K., , S. C. Tsay, , W. J. Wiscombe, , and K. Jayaweera, 1988: Numerically stable algorithm for discrete ordinate method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media. Appl. Opt., 27:2502–2509.
Woods, J. D., , W. Barkmann, , and A. Horch, 1984: Solar heating of the oceans—Diurnal, seasonal and meridional variation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 110:633–656.