This work was carried out with the support of the International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, the NATO Scientific and Environment Affairs Division (Collaborative Linkage Grant EST.CLG.978230), and the USGS Alaska Science Center. We would like to acknowledge the National Snow and Ice Data Center (University of Colorado) for providing the SMRR and SSM/I Daily Polar Gridded Tb and Sea Ice Concentrations, and the Polar Science Center, Applied Physics Laboratory (University of Washington) for providing IABP/POLES SAT data. We thank J. Walsh and an anonymous peer reviewer for their very constructive comments and recommendations.
Abdalati, W., , and K. Steffen, 1997: Snowmelt on the Greenland ice sheet as derived from passive microwave satellite data. J. Climate, 10 , 165–175.
Abdalati, W., , K. Steffen, , C. Otto, , and K. C. Jezek, 1995: Comparison of brightness temperatures from SSM/I instruments on the DMSP F8 and F11 satellites for Antarctica and the Greenland ice sheet. Int. J. Remote Sens., 16 , 1223–1229.
Anderson, M. R., 1997: Determination of a melt-onset data for Arctic sea-ice regions using passive microwave data. Ann. Glaciol., 25 , 382–387.
Anderson, M. R., , and S. D. Drobot, 2001: Spatial and temporal variability in snowmelt onset over Arctic sea-ice. Ann. Glaciol., 33 , 74–78.
Barber, D. G., , S. P. Reddan, , and E. F. LeDrew, 1995: Statistical characterization of the geophysical and electrical properties of snow on landfast first-year sea ice. J. Geophys. Res., 100 (C2) 2673–2686.
Barry, R. G., , M. C. Serreze, , J. A. Maslanik, , and R. H. Preller, 1993: The Arctic sea ice–climate system: Observations and modeling. Rev. Geophys., 31 , 397–422.
Belchansky, G. I., , and D. C. Douglas, 2002: Seasonal comparisons of sea ice concentration estimates derived from SSM/I, OKEAN, and RADARSAT data. Remote Sens. Environ., 81 , 67–81.
Bjorgo, E., , O. M. Johannessen, , and M. W. Miles, 1997: Analysis of merged SMMR–SSM/I time series of Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice parameters 1978–1995. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24 , 413–416.
Cavalieri, D. J., , C. L. Parkinson, , P. Gloersen, , J. C. Comiso, , and H. J. Zwally, 1999: Deriving long-term time series of sea ice cover from satellite passive-microwave multisensor data sets. J. Geophys. Res., 104 (C7) 15803–15814.
Chapman, W. L., , and J. E. Walsh, 1993: Recent variations of sea ice and air temperature in high latitudes. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 74 , 33–47.
Comiso, J. C., 1990–2001: DMSP SSM/I daily polar gridded sea ice concentrations. National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, CO, CD-ROM.
Comiso, J. C., 2001: Satellite-observed variability and trend in sea-ice extent, surface temperature, albedo and clouds in the Arctic. Ann. Glaciol., 33 , 457–473.
Comiso, J. C., , and R. Kwok, 1996: Surface and radiative characteristics of the summer Arctic sea ice cover from multisensor satellite observations. J. Geophys. Res., 101 (C12) 28397–28416.
Deser, C., , J. E. Walsh, , and M. S. Timlin, 2000: Arctic sea ice variability in the context of recent atmospheric circulation trends. J. Climate, 13 , 617–633.
Drobot, S. D., , and M. R. Anderson, 2001a: An improved method for determining snow melt-onset dates over Arctic sea-ice using scanning multichannel microwave radiometer and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager data. J. Geophys. Res., 106 (D20) 24033–24049.
Drobot, S. D., , and M. R. Anderson, 2001b: Comparison of interannual snowmelt-onset dates with atmospheric conditions. Ann. Glaciol., 33 , 79–84.
Drobot, S. D., , and M. R. Anderson, 2001c: Snow melt onset over Arctic sea ice from SMMR and SSM/I Tbs. National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, CO, CD-ROM.
El Naggar, S., , C. Garrity, , and R. O. Ramsier, 1998: The modeling of sea ice melt-water ponds for the high Arctic using an airborne line scan camera, and applied to the Satellite Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I). Int. J. Remote Sens., 19 , 2372–2394.
Gloerson, P., , D. Cavalieri, , W. J. Campbell, , and J. Zwally, 1990: Nimbus-7 SMMR polar radiances and Arctic and Antarctic sea ice concentrations. National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, CO, CD-ROM.
Gloerson, P., , C. L. Parkinson, , D. J. Cavalieri, , J. C. Comiso, , and H. J. Zwally, 1999: Spatial distribution of trends and seasonality in the hemispheric sea ice covers: 1978–1996. J. Geophys. Res., 104 (C9) 20827–20835.
Ikeda, M., , J. Wang, , and J-P. Zhao, 2001: Hypersensitive decadal oscillations in the Arctic/subarctic climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28 , 1275–1278.
Jezek, K. C., , C. Merry, , D. Cavalieri, , S. Grace, , J. Bedner, , D. Wilson, , and D. Lampkin, 1991: Comparison between SMMR and SSM/I passive microwave data collected over Antarctic ice sheet. Ohio State University Byrd Polar Research Tech. Rep. 91–03, 62 pp.
Maslanik, J. A., , and J. Stroeve, 1990–2001: DMSP SSM/I daily polar gridded brightness temperatures. National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, CO, CD-ROM.
Maslanik, J. A., , M. C. Serreze, , and R. G. Barry, 1996: Recent decreases in Arctic summer ice cover and linkages to atmospheric circulation anomalies. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23 , 1677–1680.
Mysak, L. A., , and S. A. Venegas, 1998: Decadal climate oscillations in the Arctic: A new feedback loop for atmosphere–ice–ocean interactions. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25 , 3607–3610.
Onstott, R. G., , T. C. Grenfell, , C. Matzler, , C. A. Luther, , and E. A. Svendsen, 1987: Evolution of microwave sea ice signatures during early summer and midsummer in the marginal ice zone. J. Geophys. Res., 92 (C7) 6825–6835.
Parkinson, C. L., 1992: Spatial patterns of increases and decreases in the length of the sea ice season in the north polar region. J. Geophys. Res., 97 (C9) 14377–14388.
Parkinson, C. L., , D. J. Cavalieri, , P. Gloersen, , H. J. Zwally, , and J. C. Comiso, 1999: Arctic sea ice extends, areas, and trends, 1978–1996. J. Geophys. Res., 104 (C9) 20837–20256.
Perovich, D. K., 1996: The Optical Properties of Sea Ice. CRREL Monogr.,. No. 96-1, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 25 pp.
Pettersson, M. I., , J. Askne, , and D. J. Cavalieri, 1996: SAR observation of Arctic freeze-up compared to SSM/I during ARCTIC'91. Int. J. Remote Sens., 17 , 2603–2624.
Rigor, I. G., , R. L. Colony, , and S. Martin, 2000: Variations in surface air temperature observations in the Arctic, 1979–97. J. Climate, 13 , 896–914.
Serreze, M. C., , J. A. Maslanik, , G. R. Scarfen, , and R. G. Barry, 1993: Interannual variations in snow melt over Arctic sea ice and relationships to atmospheric forcing. Ann. Glaciol., 17 , 327–331.
Serreze, M. C., , J. A. Maslanik, , J. R. Key, , R. F. Kokaly, , and D. A. Robinson, 1995: Diagnosis of the record minimum in Arctic sea ice area during 1990 and associated snow cover extremes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 22 , 2183–2186.
Smith, D. M., 1998a: Observation of perennial Arctic sea ice melt and freeze-up using passive microwave data. J. Geophys. Res., 103 (C12) 27753–27769.
Stroeve, J., , J. Maslanik, , and L. Xiaoming, 1998: An intercomparison of DMSP F11- and F13-derived sea ice products. Remote Sens. Environ., 64 , 132–152.
Thompson, D. W. J., , and J. M. Wallace, 1998: The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25 , 1297–1300.
Thompson, D. W. J., , and J. M. Wallace, 2000: Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part I: Month-to-month variability. J. Climate, 13 , 1000–1016.
Walsh, J. E., , W. L. Chapman, , and T. L. Shy, 1996: Recent decrease of sea level pressure in the central Arctic. J. Climate, 9 , 480–485.
Winebrenner, D. P., , E. D. Nelson, , R. Colony, , and R. D. West, 1994: Observation of melt onset on multiyear Arctic sea ice using the ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar. J. Geophys. Res., 99 (C11) 22425–22441.
Yackel, J. J., , and G. G. Barber, 2000: Melt ponds on sea ice in the Canadian Archipelago: 1. On the use of RADARSAT-1 synthetic aperture radar for geophysical inversion. J. Geophys. Res., 105 (C9) 22061–22070.
Yi, D., , L. A. Mysak, , and S. Venegas, 1999: Decadal-to-interdecadal fluctuations of Arctic sea-ice cover and the atmospheric circulation during 1954–1994. Atmos.–Ocean, 37 , 389–415.
Zhang, J., , D. Rothrock, , and M. Steele, 2000: Recent changes in the Arctic sea ice: The interplay between ice dynamics and thermodynamics. J. Climate, 13 , 3099–3114.