The authors would like to thank Hans Cuijpers (KNMI) for extensive model support, Peter van Velthoven and Rob van Dorland (both KNMI), Frans Sluijter (Eindhoven University of Technology), and Neal Butchart and Adam Scaife (both U.K. Meteorological Office) for helpful comments and suggestions, Kleareti Tourpali (University of Thessaloniki) for providing the tropopause climatology, and Erich Roeckner (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie) for providing the SST climatologies for the C and A run. Comments of two anonymous reviewers helped improve the manuscript, and are greatly appreciated.
Baldwin, M. P., and T. J. Dunkerton, 1999: Propagation of the Arctic Oscillation from the stratosphere to the troposphere. J. Geophys. Res, 104 , 30937–30946.
Boville, B. A., 1984: The influence of the polar night jet on the tropospheric circulation in a GCM. J. Atmos. Sci, 41 , 1132–1142.
Brühl, C., 1993: Atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft. Report of the 1992 Models and Measurements Workshop, NASA Ref. Publ. 1292 II, VII, 240 pp.
Butchart, N., and A. A. Scaife, 2001: Removal of chlorofluorocarbons by increased mass exchange between the stratosphere and troposphere in a changing climate. Nature, 410 , 799–802.
Charney, J. G., and P. G. Drazin, 1961: Propagation of planetary-scale disturbances from the lower into the upper atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res, 66 , 83–109.
Fels, S. B., J. D. Mahlman, M. D. Schwarzkopf, and R. W. Sinclair, 1980: Stratospheric sensitivity to perturbations in ozone and carbon dioxide: Radiative and dynamical response. J. Atmos. Sci, 37 , 2265–2297.
Fyfe, J. C., G. J. Boer, and G. M. Flato, 1999: The Arctic and Antarctic Oscillations and their projected changes under global warming. Geophys. Res. Lett, 26 , 1601–1604.
Gillett, N. P., M. R. Allen, and K. D. Williams, 2002: The role of stratospheric resolution in simulating the Arctic Oscillation response to greenhouse gases. Geophys. Res. Lett, 29 , 1500–1503.
Gillett, N. P., M. R. Allen, and K. D. Williams, 2003: Modelling the atmospheric response to doubled CO2 and depleted stratospheric ozone using a stratosphere-resolving coupled GCM. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc, 129 , 947–966.
Hartley, D. E., J. Villarin, R. X. Black, and C. A. Davis, 1998: A new perspective on the dynamical link between the stratosphere and troposphere. Nature, 391 , 471–474.
Haynes, P. H., C. J. Marks, M. E. McIntyre, T. G. Shepherd, and K. P. Shine, 1991: On the “downward control” of extratropical diabatic circulation by eddy-induced mean zonal forces. J. Atmos. Sci, 48 , 651–678.
Hines, C. O., 1997a: Doppler spread parameterization of gravity wave momentum deposition in the middle-atmosphere. Part 1: Basic formulation. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys, 59 , 371–386.
Hines, C. O., 1997b: Doppler spread parameterization of gravity wave momentum deposition in the middle-atmosphere. Part 2: Broad and quasi-monochromatic spectra and implementation. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys, 59 , 387–400.
Holton, J. R., P. H. Haynes, M. E. McIntyre, A. R. Douglass, R. B. Rood, and L. Pfister, 1995: Stratosphere–troposphere exchange. Rev. Geophys, 33 , 403–439.
Houghton, J. T., Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, and D. Xiaosu, 2001: Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Cambridge University Press, 944 pp.
Kodera, K., K. Yamazaki, M. Chiba, and K. Shibata, 1990: Downward propagation of upper stratospheric mean zonal wind perturbation to the troposphere. Geophys. Res. Lett, 17 , 1264–1266.
Mahfouf, J. F., D. Cariolle, J. F. Royer, J. F. Geleyn, and B. Timbal, 1994: Response of the Meteo-France climate model to changes in CO2 and sea surface temperature. Climate Dyn, 9 , 345–362.
Manzini, E., and N. A. McFarlane, 1998: The effect of varying the source spectrum of a gravity wave parameterization in a middle-atmosphere general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res, 103 , 31523–31539.
Manzini, E., N. A. McFarlane, and C. McLandress, 1997: Impact of the Doppler spread parameterization on the simulation of the middle-atmosphere circulation using the MAECHAM4 general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res, 102 , 25751–25762.
McFarlane, N. A., 1987: The effect of orographically exited gravity wave drag on the general circulation of the lower stratosphere and troposphere. J. Atmos. Sci, 44 , 1775–1800.
Paeth, H., A. Hense, R. Glowienka-Hense, S. Voss, and U. Cubasch, 1999: The North Atlantic Oscillation as an indicator for greenhouse-gas induced regional climate change. Climate Dyn, 15 , 953–960.
Rind, D., R. Suozzo, N. K. Balachandran, and M. J. Prather, 1990: Climate change and the middle-atmosphere. Part I: The doubled CO2 climate. J. Atmos. Sci, 47 , 475–494.
Rind, D., D. Shindell, P. Lonergan, and N. K. Balachandran, 1998: Climate change and the middle-atmosphere. Part III: The doubled CO2 climate revisited. J. Climate, 11 , 876–894.
Rind, D., P. Lonergan, N. K. Balachandran, and D. Shindell, 2002: 2 × CO2 and solar variability influences on the troposphere through wave–mean flow interactions. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 80 , 811–830.
Roeckner, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM4: Model description and simulation of present day climate. Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology Rep. 218, Hamburg, Germany, 90 pp.
Rosenlof, K. H., and J. R. Holton, 1993: Estimates of the stratospheric residual circulation using the downward control principle. J. Geophys. Res, 98 , 10465–10479.
Shindell, D. T., D. Rind, and P. Lonergan, 1998: Increased polar stratospheric ozone losses and delayed eventual recovery owing to increasing greenhouse-gas concentrations. Nature, 392 , 589–592.
Shindell, D. T., R. L. Miller, G. Schmidt, and L. Pandolfo, 1999: Simulation of recent northern winter climate trends by greenhouse-gas forcing. Nature, 399 , 452–455.
Shindell, D. T., G. A. Schmidt, R. L. Miller, and D. Rind, 2001: Northern Hemisphere winter climate response to greenhouse gas, ozone, solar, and volcanic forcing. J. Geophys. Res, 106 , 7193–7210.
Sigmond, M., P. C. Siegmund, and H. Kelder, 2003: Analysis of the coupling between the stratospheric meridional wind and the surface level zonal wind during 1979–93 Northern Hemisphere extratropical winters. Climate Dyn, 21 , 211–219.
Thompson, D. W. J., and J. M. Wallace, 1998: The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett, 25 , 1297–1300.
Thompson, D. W. J., J. M. Wallace, and G. C. Hegerl, 2000: Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part II: Trends. J. Climate, 13 , 1018–1036.