Funding for this research was obtained through a grant from the Climate Dynamics Division of the National Science Foundation (ATM-0120956). The authors would like to thank Martin Hoerling for reading through the manuscript and Grant Branstator, Prashant Sardeshmukh, and two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments and suggestions concerning this work. Support to the first author by Maurice Blackmon and Clara Deser is gratefully acknowledged.
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