The authors would like to thank Dr. E. Roeckner and Dr. Xiouhua Fu for discussions and help in setting up the ECHAM AGCM. The NCEP– NCAR reanalysis data were provided by the NOAA– CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center from the Web site (http://www.cdc.noaa.gov). This work is a part of XJ's Ph.D. dissertation supported by IPRC. TL and BW acknowledge the support of the NSF climate dynamics program (ATM-0073023 and ATM-0329531). The IPRC is sponsored in part by the Frontier Research System for Global Change.
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