We thank Helge Drange, Mats Bentsen, and Ina Karin Kindem for providing the BCM run, and Bruno Blanke and Daniele Iudicone for making available the Lagrangian tool. Thanks are also due to the reviewers, whose comments led to an improved presentation of the work. Useful discussions with Gilles Reverdin and Jean-Luc Mélice are acknowledged. The NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data were provided through the NOAA Climate Diagnostics Center (http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/). This research was supported in part by the PREDICATE project of the European Community, the PNEDC, and the Institut Universitaire de France. J. M. was supported during her doctoral thesis by a scholarship from the DGA–CNRS.
Bacon, S., , W J. Gould, , and Y. Jia, 2003: Open-ocean convection in the Irminger Sea. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 .1246, doi:10.1029/2002GL016271.
Bentsen, M., , H. Drange, , T. Furevik, , and T. Zhou, 2004: Simulated variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Climate Dyn., 22 , 701–720.
Blanke, B., , and S. Raynaud, 1997: Kinematics of the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent: An Eulerian and Lagrangian approach from GCM results. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27 , 1038–1053.
Bleck, R., , C. Rooth, , D. Hu, , and L T. Smith, 1992: Salinity-driven thermohaline transients in a wind- and thermohaline-forced isopycnic coordinate model of the North Atlantic. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 22 , 1486–1505.
Cassou, C., , and L. Terray, 2001: Oceanic forcing of the wintertime low-frequency atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic European sector: A study with the ARPEGE model. J. Climate, 14 , 4266–4291.
Chen, F., , and M. Ghil, 1996: Interdecadal variability in a hybrid coupled ocean–atmosphere model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26 , 1561–1578.
Clarke, R A., , and J-C. Gascard, 1983: The formation of Labrador Sea Water. Part I: Large-scale processes. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13 , 1764–1778.
Curry, R G., , and M S. McCartney, 2001: Ocean gyre circulation changes associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31 , 3374–3400.
Daubechies, I., 1992: Ten lectures on wavelets. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics CBMS-NSF Lecture Notes 61, 357 pp.
Delworth, T L., , and R J. Greatbatch, 2000: Multidecadal thermohaline circulation variability driven by atmospheric surface flux forcing. J. Climate, 13 , 1481–1495.
Delworth, T L., , S. Manabe, , and R J. Stouffer, 1993: Interdecadal variations of the thermohaline circulation in a coupled ocean–atmosphere model. J. Climate, 6 , 1993–2011.
Delworth, T L., , S. Manabe, , and R J. Stouffer, 1997: Multidecadal climate variability in the Greenland Sea and surrounding regions: A coupled model simulation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24 , 257–260.
Déqué, M., , C. Dreveton, , A. Braun, , and D. Cariolle, 1994: The ARPEGE/IFS atmosphere model: A contribution to the French community climate modelling. Climate Dyn., 10 , 249–266.
Dickson, R., , J. Lazier, , J. Meincke, , P. Rhines, , and J. Swift, 1996: Long term coordinated changes in the convective activity of the North Atlantic. Progress in Oceanography, Vol. 38, Pergamon, 241–295.
Drange, H., 1999: RegClim ocean modelling at NERSC. Regclim: Regional Climate Development under Global Warming, General Tech. Rep. 2, Norwegian Institute for Air–Sea Research, 93–102.
DYNAMO Group, 1997: DYNAMO—Dynamics of the North Atlantic Models: Simulation and assimilation with high resolution models. Tech. Rep. 294, Institüt für Meereskunde, Christian Albrechts Universität, Kiel, Germany, 334 pp.
Eden, C., , and J. Willebrand, 2001: Mechanisms of interannual to decadal variability of the North Atlantic circulation. J. Climate, 14 , 2266–2280.
Enfield, D B., , and D A. Mayer, 1997: Tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature variability and its relation to El Niño–Southern Oscillation. J. Geophys. Res., 102 , C1,. 929–945.
Feldstein, S B., 2000: Teleconnections and ENSO: The timescale, power spectra, and climate noise properties. J. Climate, 13 , 4430–4440.
Frankignoul, C., , G. De Coëtlogon, , T M. Joyce, , and S. Dong, 2001: Gulf Stream variability and ocean–atmosphere interactions. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31 , 3516–3529.
Furevik, T., , M. Bentsen, , H. Drange, , I. K. T. Kindem, , N G. Kvamstø, , and A. Sorteberg, 2003: Description and evaluation of the Bergen Climate Model: ARPEGE coupled with MICOM. Climate Dyn., 21 , 27–51.
Ganachaud, A., , and C. Wunsch, 2000: Improved estimates of global ocean circulation, heat transport and mixing from hydrographic data. Nature, 408 , 453–456.
Gao, Y., , H. Drange, , and M. Bentsen, 2003: Effects of diapycnal and isopycnal mixing on the ventilation of CFCs in the North Atlantic in an isopycnic coordinate OGCM. Tellus, 55B , 837–854.
Giannini, A., , Y. Kushnir, , and M C. Cane, 2000: Interannual variability of Caribbean rainfall, ENSO, and the Atlantic Ocean. J. Climate, 13 , 297–310.
Hakkinen, S., 1999: Variability of the simulated meridional heat transport in the North Atlantic for the period 1951–1993. J. Geophys. Res., 104 , C5,. 10991–11007.
Hastenrath, S., 1976: Variations in the low-latitude circulation and extreme climatic events in the tropical Americas. J. Atmos. Sci., 33 , 202–215.
Hsieh, W W., , M K. Daney, , and R C. Wajsowicz, 1983: The free Kelvin wave in finite-difference numerical models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13 , 1383–1397.
Latif, M., , E. Roeckner, , U. Mikolajewicz, , and R. Voss, 2000: Tropical stabilization of the thermohaline circulation in a greenhouse warming simulation. J. Climate, 13 , 1809–1813.
Lazier, J. R. N., , R. Pickart, , and P. Rhines, 2001: Deep convection. Ocean Circulation and Climate: Observing and Modelling the Global Ocean, G. Siedler, J. Church, and J. Gould, Eds., International Geophysics Series, Vol. 77, Academic Press, 387–400.
Marshall, J., , H. Johnson, , and J. Goodman, 2001: A study of the interaction of the North Atlantic Oscillation with the ocean circulation. J. Climate, 14 , 1399–1421.
Mignot, J., , and C. Frankignoul, 2004: Interannual to interdecadal variability of sea surface salinity in the Atlantic and its link to the atmosphere in a coupled model. J. Geophys. Res., 109 .C04005, doi:10.1029/2003JC002005.
Mikolajewicz, U., , and E. Maier-Reimer, 1990: Internal secular variability in an ocean general circulation model. Climate Dyn., 4 , 145–156.
Otterå, O H., , H. Drange, , M. Bentsen, , N G. Kvamstø, , and D. Jiang, 2003: The sensitivity of the present-day Atlantic meridional overturning circulation to freshwater forcing. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 .1898, doi:10.1029/2003GL017578.
Pickart, R S., , M A. Spall, , M H. Ribergaard, , G. W. K. Moore, , and R F. Milliff, 2003a: Deep convection in the Irminger Sea forced by the Greenland tip jet. Nature, 424 , 152–156.
Pickart, R S., , F. Straneo, , and G. W. K. Moore, 2003b: Is the Labrador Sea Water formed in the Irminger basin? Deep-Sea Res., 50A , 23–52.
Schott, F., , M. Visbeck, , and J. Fischer, 1993: Observations of vertical currents and convection in the central Greenland Sea during the winter of 1988/1989. J. Geophys. Res., 98 , 14401–14421.
Siedler, G., , J. Church, , and J. Gould, and Eds., 2001: Ocean Circulation and Climate: Observing and Modelling the Global Ocean. International Geophysics Series, Vol. 77, Academic Press, 715 pp.
Talley, L D., , J L. Reid, , and P E. Robbins, 2003: Data-based meridional overturning streamfunctions for the global oceans. J. Climate, 16 , 3213–3226.
Thorpe, R B., , J M. Gregory, , T C. Johns, , R A. Wood, , and J. F. B. Mitchell, 2001: Mechanisms determining the Atlantic thermohaline circulation response to greenhouse gas forcing in a non-adjusted coupled climate model. J. Climate, 14 , 3102–3116.
Timmermann, A., , M. Latif, , R. Voss, , and A. Grötzner, 1998: Northern Hemispheric interdecadal variability: A coupled air–sea mode. J. Climate, 11 , 1906–1931.
Vellinga, M., , and P. Wu, 2004: Low-latitude freshwater influence on centennial variability of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. J. Climate, 17 , 4498–4511.
Vellinga, M., , R. Wood, , and J. Gregory, 2002: Processes governing the recovery of a perturbed thermohaline circulation in HadCM3. J. Climate, 15 , 764–780.
Weaver, A J., , E S. Sarachik, , and J. Marotzke, 1991: Freshwater flux forcing of decadal and interdecadal oceanic variability. Nature, 353 , 836–838.
Yang, J., 1999: A linkage between decadal climate variations in the Labrador Sea and the tropical Atlantic Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26 , 1023–1026.