This work was supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Arctic Research Office and the National Science Foundation (NSF; Grants OPP-0240827 and OPP-0230317). We thank C. Fowler, J. Maslanik, T. Scambos, and T. Haran for their work on the AVHRR Polar Pathfinder dataset. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) provided the standard APP dataset. The NCEP–NCAR reanalysis global profile dataset was provided by the NOAA–CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center. The NASA Langley Research Center provided the ISCCP D2 ozone dataset. Thanks also go to the two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments and suggestions. The views, opinions, and findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or U.S. Government position, policy, or decision.
Anderson, M R., and S D. Drobot, 2001: Spatial and temporal variability in snowmelt onset over Arctic sea ice. Ann. Glaciol., 33 , 74–78.
Cavalieri, D J., C L. Parkinson, and K Y. Vinnikov, 2003: 30-year satellite reveals contrasting Arctic and Antarctic decadal sea ice variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 .1970, doi:10.1029/2003GL018031.
Chapman, W L., and J E. Walsh, 1993: Recent variations of sea ice and air temperature in high latitudes. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 74 , 33–47.
Chen, Y., J A. Francis, and J R. Miller, 2002: Surface temperature of the Arctic: Comparison of TOVS satellite retrievals with surface observations. J. Climate, 15 , 3698–3708.
Comiso, J C., 2002: A rapid declining perennial sea ice cover in the Arctic. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 .1956, doi:10.1029/2002GL015650.
Curry, J A., W B. Rossow, D. Randall, and J L. Schramm, 1996: Overview of Arctic cloud and radiation characteristics. J. Climate, 9 , 1731–1764.
Fowler, C., J. Maslanik, T. Haran, T. Scambos, J. Key, and W. Emery, 2000: AVHRR Polar Pathfinder twice-daily 5 km EASE-grid composites. National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, CO. [Available online at http://nsidc.org/data/docs/daac/nsidc0066_avhrr_5km.gd.html.].
Groves, D G., and J A. Francis, 2002a: Variability of the Arctic atmospheric moisture budget from TOVS satellite data. J. Geophys. Res., 107 .4785, doi:10.1029/2002JD002285.
Groves, D G., and J A. Francis, 2002b: Moisture budget of the Arctic from TOVS satellite data. J. Geophys. Res., 107 .4391, doi:10.1029/2001JD001191.
Johannessen, O M., E V. Shalina, and M W. Miles, 1999: Satellite evidence for an Arctic sea ice cover in transformation. Science, 286 , 1937–1939.
Key, J., 2002: The Cloud and Surface Parameter Retrieval (CASPR) system for polar AVHRR user’s guide, Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, University of Wisconsin—Madison, 68 pp. [Available online at http://stratus.ssec.wisc.edu/caspr/documentation.html.].
Key, J., and A J. Schweiger, 1998: Tools for atmospheric radiative transfer: Streamer and FluxNet. Comput. Geosci., 24 , 443–451.
Key, J., X. Wang, J. Stoeve, and C. Fowler, 2001: Estimating the cloudy-sky albedo of sea ice and snow from space. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , D12,. 12489–12497.
Key, J., P. Yang, B A. Baum, and S L. Nasin, 2002: Parameterization of shortwave ice cloud optical properties for various particle habits. J. Geophys. Res., 107 .4181, doi:10.1029/2001JD000742.
Manabe, S., and R J. Stouffer, 1994: Multiple-century response of a coupled ocean–atmosphere model to an increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide. J. Climate, 7 , 5–23.
Manabe, S., M J. Spelman, and R J. Stouffer, 1992: Transient response of a coupled ocean–atmosphere model to gradual changes of atmospheric CO2. Part II: Seasonal response. J. Climate, 5 , 105–126.
Mantua, N J., S R. Hare, Y. Zhang, J M. Wallace, and R C. Francis, 1997: A Pacific decadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 1069–1079.
Maslanik, J A., J. Key, C W. Fowler, T. Nguyen, and X. Wang, 2001: Spatial and temporal variability of satellite-derived cloud and surface characteristics during FIRE-ACE. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , D14,. 15233–15249.
Meehl, G A., and W M. Washington, 1990: CO2 climate sensitivity and snow-sea-ice parameterization in an atmospheric GCM coupled to a mixed-layer ocean model. Climate Change, 16 , 283–306.
Meier, W., J A. Maslanik, J R. Key, and C W. Fowler, 1997: Multiparameter AVHRR-derived products for Arctic climate studies. Earth Interactions, 1. [Available online at http://EarthInteractions.org.].
Miller, J R., and G L. Russell, 2000: Projected impact of climatic change on the freshwater and salt budgets of the Arctic Ocean by a GCM. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27 , 1183–1186.
Myneni, R B., C D. Keeling, C J. Tucker, G. Asrar, and R R. Nemani, 1997: Increased plant growth in the northern high latitudes from 1981 to 1991. Nature, 386 , 698–702.
Overland, J E., M. Wang, and N A. Bond, 2002: Recent temperature changes in the western Arctic during spring. J. Climate, 15 , 1702–1716.
Parkinson, C L., D J. Cavalieri, P. Gloersen, H J. Zwally, and J C. Comiso, 1999: Arctic sea ice extents, areas, and trends, 1978–1996. J. Geophys. Res., 104 , C9,. 20837–20856.
Pavolonis, M., and J. Key, 2003: Antarctic cloud radiative forcing at the surface estimated from the AVHRR Polar Pathfinder and ISCCP D1 datasets, 1985–1993. J. Appl. Meteor., 42 , 827–840.
Rigor, I., R L. Colony, and S. Martin, 2000: Variations in surface air temperature observations in the Arctic, 1979–97. J. Climate, 13 , 896–914.
Rossow, W B., A. Walker, D. Beuschel, and M. Roiter, 1996: International satellite cloud climatology project (ISCCP) documentation of new cloud datasets. WMO/TD 737, World Meteorological Organization, 115 pp. [Available online at: http://isccp.giss.nasa.gov/docs/documents.html.].
Serreze, M C., and R G. Barry, 2000: Atmospheric components of the Arctic Ocean hydrologic budget assessed from rawinsonde data. The Fresh-Water Budget of the Arctic Ocean, E. L. Lewis, Ed., Kluwer Academic, 141–161.
Serreze, M C., and Coauthors, 2000: Observational evidence of recent change in the northern high-latitude environment. Climate Change, 46 , 159–207.
Stroeve, J., J. Box, C. Fowler, T. Haran, and J R. Key, 2001: Intercomparison between in situ and AVHRR Polar Pathfinder-derived surface albedo over Greenland. Remote Sens. Environ., 75 , 360–374.
Thomas, D R., and D A. Rothrock, 1993: The Arctic Ocean balance: A Kalman smoother estimate. J. Geophys. Res., 98 , C6,. 10053–10062.
Thompson, D. W. J., and J M. Wallace, 1998: The Arctic oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25 , 1297–1300.
Wallace, J M., and D S. Gutzler, 1981: Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109 , 784–812.
Wallace, J M., Y. Zhang, and L. Bajuk, 1996: Interpretation of interdecadal trends in Northern Hemisphere surface air temperature. J. Climate, 9 , 249–259.
Wang, X J., and J R. Key, 2003: Recent trends in Arctic surface, cloud, and radiation properties from space. Science, 299 , 1725–1728.
Wang, X J., and J R. Key, 2005: Arctic surface, cloud, and radiation properties based on the AVHRR Polar Pathfinder dataset. Part I: Spatial and temporal characteristics. J. Climate, 18 , 2558–2574.
Wolter, K., and M S. Timlin, 1993: Monitoring ENSO in COADS with a seasonally adjusted principal component index. Proc. 17th Climate Diagnostics Workshop, Norman, OK, NOAA/NMC/CAC, 52–57.