The authors sincerely thank the editor and anonymous referees for their valuable comments on this manuscript. This research was funded, in part, by the South African Government Department of Science and Technology Innovation Fund.
Allan, R J., and M. Haylock, 1993: Circulation features associated with the winter rainfall decrease in southwestern Australia. J. Climate, 6 , 1356–1367.
Ansell, T J., C. J. C. Reason, I N. Smith, and K. Keay, 2000: Evidence for decadal variability in southern Australian rainfall and relationships with regional pressure and sea surface temperature. Int. J. Climatol., 20 , 1113–1129.
Cavazos, T., 1999: Large-scale circulation anomalies conducive to extreme precipitation events and derivation of daily rainfall in northeastern Mexico and southeastern Texas. J. Climate, 12 , 1506–1523.
Cavazos, T., 2000: Using self-organizing maps to investigate extreme climate events: An application to wintertime precipitation in the Balkans. J. Climate, 13 , 1718–1732.
Cook, K H., 2000: The South Indian convergence zone and interannual rainfall variability over southern Africa. J. Climate, 13 , 3789–3804.
Cook, K H., 2001: A Southern Hemisphere wave response to ENSO with implications for southern Africa precipitation. J. Atmos. Sci., 58 , 2146–2162.
D’Abreton, P C., and J A. Lindesay, 1993: Water vapour transport over southern Africa during wet and dry early and late summer months. Int. J. Climatol., 13 , 151–170.
D'Abreton, P C., and P D. Tyson, 1995: Divergent and non-divergent water vapour transport over southern Africa during wet and dry conditions. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 55 , 47–59.
Douville, H., F. Chauvin, and H. Broqua, 2001: Influence of soil moisture on the Asian and African monsoons. Part I: Mean monsoon and daily precipitation. J. Climate, 14 , 2381–2403.
Eastin, M D., and D G. Vincent, 1998: A 6-yr climatology of vertical mean and shear components of kinetic energy for the Australian–South Pacific jet stream. J. Climate, 11 , 283–291.
Gentilli, J., 1991: Homologous peri-oceanic west coast climates in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Roy. Soc. West. Aust., 74 , 15–33.
Godfred-Spenning, C R., and C. J. C. Reason, 2002: Interannual variability of lower-tropospheric moisture transport during the Australian monsoon. Int. J. Climatol., 22 , 509–532.
Hayes, M J., M D. Svoboda, D A. Wilhite, and O V. Vanyarkho, 1999: Monitoring the 1006 drought using the Standardized Precipitation Index. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80 , 429–438.
Holopainen, E O., 1970: An observational study of the energy balance of the stationary disturbances in the atmosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 96 , 626–644.
Huang, H-J., and D G. Vincent, 1985: Significance of the South Pacific convergence zone in energy conversions of the Southern Hemisphere during FGGE, 10–27 January 1979. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113 , 1359–1371.
Jury, M R., H R. Valentine, and J. R. E. Lutjeharms, 1993: Influence of the Agulhas Current on summer rainfall along the southeast coast of South Africa. J. Appl. Meteor., 32 , 1282–1287.
Jury, M R., B. Pathack, C J. de W Rautenbach, and J. van Heerden, 1996: Drought over South Africa and Indian Ocean SST: Statistical and GCM results. Global Atmos.–Ocean Syst., 4 , 47–63.
Mason, S J., and P D. Tyson, 1992: The modulation of sea surface temperature and rainfall associations over southern Africa with solar activity and the quasi-biennial oscillation. J. Geophys. Res., 97 , 5847–5856.
Mason, S J., and M R. Jury, 1997: Climatic variability and change over southern Africa: A reflection on underlying processes. Prog. Phys. Geogr., 21 , 23–50.
New, M., M. Hulme, and P. Jones, 2000: Representing twentieth-century space–time climate variability. Part II: Development of 1900–1998 monthly grids of terrestrial surface climate. J. Climate, 13 , 2217–2238.
Newell, R E., J W. Kidson, D G. Vincent, and G J. Boer, 1972: The General Circulation of the Tropical Atmosphere and Interactions with Extratropical Latitudes. Vol. 1. MIT Press, 258 pp.
Peixoto, J P., and A. Oort, 1974: The annual distribution of atmospheric energy on a planetary scale. J. Geophys. Res., 79 , 2149–2159.
Peterson, R G., and W B. White, 1998: Slow oceanic teleconnections linking the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave with the tropical El Niño–Southern Oscillation. J. Geophys. Res., 103 , 24573–24583.
Reason, C. J. C., 1998: Warm and cold events in the southeast Atlantic/southwest Indian Ocean region and potential impacts on circulation and rainfall over southern Africa. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 69 , 49–65.
Reason, C. J. C., 2001: Evidence for the influence of the Agulhas Current on regional atmospheric circulation patterns. J. Climate, 14 , 2769–2778.
Reason, C. J. C., and H M. Mulenga, 1999: Relationships between South African rainfall and SST anomalies in the south west Indian Ocean. Int. J. Climatol., 19 , 1651–1673.
Reason, C. J. C., R J. Allan, J A. Lindesay, and T J. Ansell, 2000: ENSO and climatic signals across the Indian Ocean basin in the global context: Part I, Interannual composite patterns. Int. J. Climatol., 20 , 1285–1327.
Reason, C. J. C., M. Rouault, J L. Mélice, and D. Jagadeesha, 2002: Interannual winter rainfall variability in SW South Africa and large scale ocean–atmosphere interactions. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 80 , 19–29.
Rogers, J C., 1984: Association between the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Southern Oscillation in the Northern Hemisphere. Mon. Wea. Rev., 112 , 1999–2015.
Ropelewski, C F., and M S. Halpert, 1987: Global and regional scale precipitation patterns associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115 , 1606–1626.
Slingo, J M., and H. Annamalai, 2000: 1997: The El Niño of the century and the response of the Indian summer monsoon. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 1778–1797.
Smith, I N., P. McIntosh, T J. Ansell, C. J. C. Reason, and K L. McInnes, 2000: South-west western Australian winter rainfall and its association with Indian Ocean climate variability. Int. J. Climatol., 20 , 1913–1930.
Taljaard, J J., 1967: Development, distribution and movement of cyclones and anticyclones in the Southern Hemisphere during the IGY. J. Appl. Meteor., 6 , 973–987.
Tennant, W J., 2004: Considerations when using pre-1979 NCEP/NCAR reanalyses in the Southern Hemisphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31 .L11112, doi:10.1029/2004GL019751.
Tennant, W J., and B C. Hewitson, 2002: Intra-seasonal rainfall characteristics and their importance to the seasonal prediction problem. Int. J. Climatol., 22 , 1033–1048.
Todd, M., and R. Washington, 1999: Circulation anomalies associated with tropical–temperate troughs in southern Africa and the south west Indian Ocean. Climate Dyn., 15 , 937–951.
Trenberth, K E., G W. Branstator, D. Karoly, A. Kumar, N-C. Lau, and C. Ropelewski, 1998: Progress during TOGA in understanding and modeling global teleconnections associated with tropical sea surface temperatures. J. Geophys. Res., 103 , 14291–14324.
Van den Heever, S C., P C. D’Abreton, and P D. Tyson, 1997: Numerical simulation of tropical–temperate troughs over southern Africa using the CSU RAMS model. S. Afr. J. Sci., 93 , 359–365.
Wiin-Nielsen, A., 1962: On transformation of kinetic energy between the vertical shear flow and the vertical mean flow in the atmosphere. Mon. Wea. Rev., 90 , 311–322.
Yarnal, B., 1985: Extra-tropical teleconnections with El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. Prog. Phys. Geogr., 9 , 315–352.
Yarnal, B., and G. Kiladis, 1985: Tropical teleconnections associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. Prog. Phys. Geogr., 9 , 524–558.
Zheng, X., and E. A. B. Eltahir, 1998: The role of vegetation in the dynamics of West African monsoons. J. Climate, 11 , 2078–2096.