We are grateful to the International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska, Fairbanks; the Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science of Hokkaido University, (Sapporo, Japan); the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (St. Petersburg, Russia); and Seoul National University (South Korea) for the support in preparation of this paper. The work was supported financially through category 7 of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) Research Revolution 2002 (RR2002) Project for Sustainable Coexistence of Human, Nature and the Earth; Frontier Research System for Global Change; and NTP of the Russian Ministry of Industry and Science. Proofreading by T. Ikeda was appreciated.
Andreas, E. L., 1996: The atmospheric boundary layer over polar marine surface. U.S. Army CRREL Rep. 96-2, 38 pp.
Arfeuille, G., , L. A. Mysak, , and L. B. Tremblay, 2000: Simulation of the interannual variability of the wind-driven Arctic sea-ice cover during 1958–1998. Climate Dyn., 16 , 107–121.
Boradachev, V. E., , V. P. Gavrilo, , and M. M. Kazansky, 1994: Dictionary of Sea Ice Terminology. (in Russian). Gidrometeoizdat, 125 pp.
Burden, R. P., , and G. W. Timco, 1995: Catalogue of sea ice ridges. Counseil National de Recherches Canada and Institut de Dynamique Marine Tech. Rep. TR-1995-27, Canada, 69 pp.
Comiso, J. C., 2002: Correlation and trend studies of the sea-ice cover and surface temperatures in the Arctic. Ann. Glaciol., 34 , 420–428.
Davis, N. R., , and P. Wadhams, 1995: A statistical analysis of Arctic pressure ridge morphology. J. Geophys. Res., 100 , 10915–10925.
Dumas, J. A., , G. M. Flato, , and A. J. Weaver, 2003: The impact of varying atmospheric forcing on the thickness of arctic multi-year sea ice. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 .1918, doi:1029/2003GL017433.
Ebert, E. E., , and J. A. Curry, 1993: An intermediate one-dimensional thermodynamic sea ice model for investigating ice–atmosphere interaction. J. Geophys. Res., 98 , 10085–10109.
Fichefet, T., , H. Goosse, , and M. A. M. Maqueda, 2003: A hindcast simulation of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice variability, 1955–2001. Polar Res., 22 , 91–98.
Haas, C., , and H. Eicken, 2001: Interannual variability of summer sea ice thickness in the Siberian and central Arctic under different atmospheric circulation regimes. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , 4449–4462.
Hibler, W. D., , and S. Ackley, 1973: A sea ice terrain model and its application to surface vehicle trafficability. U.S. Army CRREL Res. Rep. RR 314, 20 pp.
Holtslag, A. A. M., , and H. A. R. de Bruin, 1988: Applied modeling of the nighttime surface energy balance over land. J. Appl. Meteor., 27 , 689–704.
Ikeda, M., , J. Wang, , and A. Makshtas, 2003: Importance of clouds to the decaying trend in the Arctic ice cover. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 81 , 179–189.
Johannessen, O. M., , E. V. Shalina, , and M. W. Miles, 1999: Satellite evidence for an Arctic sea ice cover in transformation. Science, 286 , 1937–1939.
Jordan, R. E., , E. L. Andreas, , and A. P. Makshtas, 1999: Heat budget of snow-covered sea ice at North Pole 4. J. Geophys. Res., 104 , 7785–7806.
Konig-Langlo, G., , and E. Augstein, 1994: Parameterization of the downward long-wave radiation at the Earth’s surface in polar regions. Meteor. Z., 3 , 343–347.
Kreyscher, M., , M. Harder, , P. Lemke, , and G. M. Flato, 2000: Results of the Sea Ice Model Intercomparison Project: Evaluation of sea ice rheology schemes for use in climate simulations. J. Geophys. Res., 105 , 11299–11320.
Laxon, S., , N. Peacock, , and D. Smith, 2003: High interannual variability of sea ice thickness in the Arctic region. Nature, 425 , 947–950.
Makshtas, A., , S. Shoutilin, , and V. Romanov, 2002: Sensitivity of modeled sea ice to external forcing and parameterizations of heat exchange processes. Ice in the Environment: Proc. 16th IAHR Int. Symp. on Ice, Vol. 2, Dunedin, New Zealand, IAHR, 259–267.
Makshtas, A., , S. Shoutilin, , and E. Andreas, 2003: Possible dynamic and thermal causes for the recent decrease in sea ice in the Arctic. J. Geophys. Res., 108 .3232, doi:10.1029/2001JC000878.
Maslanik, J. A., , M. C. Serreze, , and R. G. Barry, 1996: Recent decreases in Arctic summer ice cover and linkages to atmospheric circulation anomalies. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23 , 1677–1680.
Maslanik, J. A., , M. C. Serreze, , and T. Agnew, 1999: On the record reduction in 1998 Western Arctic Sea-Ice Cover. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26 , 1905–1908.
Maslanik, J. A., , A. H. Lynch, , M. C. Serreze, , and W. Wu, 2000: A case study of regional climate anomalies in the Arctic: Performance requirements for a coupled model. J. Climate, 13 , 383–401.
McPhee, M. G., 1979: The effect of the oceanic boundary layer on the mean drift of pack ice application of a simple model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 9 , 388–400.
Parkinson, C. L., , D. J. Cavalieri, , P. Gloersen, , H. J. Zwally, , and J. C. Comiso, 1999: Arctic sea ice extents, areas, and trends, 1978–1996. J. Geophys. Res., 104 , 20837–20856.
Proshutinsky, A. Y., , and M. A. Johnson, 1997: Two circulation regimes of the wind-driven Arctic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 102 , 12493–12514.
Rigor, I. G., , J. M. Wallace, , and R. L. Colony, 2002: Response of sea ice to the Arctic Oscillation. J. Climate, 15 , 2648–2663.
Rothrock, D. A., , J. Zhang, , and Y. Yu, 2003: The arctic ice thickness anomaly of the 1990s: A consistent view from observations and models. J. Geophys. Res., 108 .3083, doi:10.1029/2001JC001208.
Semtner Jr., A. J., 1976: A model for the thermodynamic growth of sea ice in numerical investigations of climate. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 6 , 379–389.
Serreze, M. C., and Coauthors, 2003: A record minimum arctic sea ice extent and area in 2002. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 .1110, doi:10.1029/2002GL016406.
Shine, K. P., 1984: Parameterization of shortwave flux over high albedo surface as a function of cloud thickness and surface albedo. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 110 , 747–764.
Thorndike, A. S., , D. A. Rothrock, , G. A. Maykut, , and R. Colony, 1975: The thickness distribution of sea ice. J. Geophys. Res., 80 , 4501–4513.
Tucker, W. B., , J. W. Weatherly, , D. T. Eppler, , D. Farmer, , and D. L. Bentley, 2001: Evidence for the rapid thinning of sea ice in the western Arctic Ocean at the end of the 1980s. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28 , 2851–2854.
Walsh, J. E., , W. E. Chapman, , and T. L. Shy, 1996: Recent decrease of sea level pressure in the central Arctic. J. Climate, 9 , 480–486.
Zhang, J., , D. A. Rothrock, , and M. Steele, 1998: Warming of the Arctic Ocean by strengthened Atlantic inflow: Model results. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25 , 1745–1748.
Zhang, J., , D. A. Rothrock, , and M. Steele, 2000: Recent changes in the Arctic sea ice: The interplay between ice dynamics and thermodynamics. J. Climate, 13 , 3099–3114.
Zhang, J., , D. R. Thomas, , D. A. Rothrock, , R. W. Lindsay, , and Y. Yu, 2003: Assimilation of ice motion observations and comparisons with submarine ice thickness data. J. Geophys. Res., 108 .3170, doi:10.1029/2001JC001041.
Zhang, X., , M. Ikeda, , and J. E. Walsh, 2003: Arctic sea ice and freshwater changes driven by the atmospheric leading mode in a coupled sea ice–ocean model. J. Climate, 16 , 2159–2177.