Funding for this research was provided by a cooperative agreement with NOAA (NA77RJ0435 and NA17R1231) and NASA Grant NAG8-175. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not reflect the views of NOAA and NASA. We thank the Maui High Performance Computing Center and the San Diego Supercomputing Center for providing computing time. We thank M. Kanamitsu for many insightful discussions and for his help with the model. We appreciated the comments of three anonymous reviewers, which helped to improve this paper. This work is part of the Ph.D. thesis of T. Reichler.
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