This study is based on model integrations that were performed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, with facilities and support provided by the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, and the Earth Simulator Center of the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology. It was made possible by the work of many support staff and scientists at NCAR and CRIEPI.
Bitz, C. M., , M. M. Holland, , M. Eby, , and A. J. Weaver, 2001: Simulating the ice-thickness distribution in a coupled climate model. J. Geophys. Res, 106 , 2441–2463.
Bryan, F. O., , G. Danabasoglu, , N. Nakashiki, , Y. Yoshida, , D. H. Kim, , J. Tsutsui, , and S. C. Doney, 2006: Response of North Atlantic thermohaline circulation and ventilation to increasing carbon dioxide in CCSM3. J. Climate, 19 , 2382–2397.
Danabasoglu, G., , W. G. Large, , J. J. Tribbia, , P. R. Gent, , B. P. Briegleb, , and J. C. McWilliams, 2006: Diurnal coupling in the tropical oceans of CCSM3. J. Climate, 19 , 2347–2365.
Doney, S. C., , and M. W. Hecht, 2002: Antarctic Bottom Water formation and deep-water chlorofluorocarbon distributions in a global ocean climate model. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 32 , 1642–1666.
Doney, S. C., and Coauthors, 2004: Evaluating global ocean carbon models: The importance of realistic physics. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18 .GB3017, doi:10.1029/2003GB002150.
Dutay, J. C., and Coauthors, 2002: Evaluation of ocean model ventilation with CFC-11: Comparison of 13 global ocean models. Ocean Modell, 4 , 89–120.
Gent, P. R., , and G. Danabasoglu, 2004: Heat uptake and the thermohaline circulation in the Community Climate System Model, version 2. J. Climate, 17 , 4058–4069.
Gregory, J. M., , H. T. Banks, , P. A. Stott, , J. A. Lowe, , and M. D. Palmer, 2004: Simulated and observed decadal variability in ocean heat content. Geophys. Res. Lett, 31 .L15312, doi:10.1029/2004GL020258.
Haine, T. W. N., , and S. L. Gray, 2001: Quantifying mesoscale variability in ocean transient tracer fields. J. Geophys. Res, 106 , 13861–13878.
Kiehl, J. T., , C. A. Shields, , J. J. Hack, , and W. D. Collins, 2006: The climate sensitivity of the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3). J. Climate, 19 , 2584–2596.
Large, W. G., , and S. G. Yeager, 2004: Diurnal to decadal global forcing for ocean and sea-ice models: The data sets and flux climatologies. NCAR Tech. Note, NCAR/TN-460+STR, 111 pp. [Available online at http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/oce/pubs/04pubs.html.].
Large, W. G., , J. C. McWilliams, , and S. C. Doney, 1994: Oceanic vertical mixing: A review and a model with a nonlocal boundary layer parameterization. Rev. Geophys, 32 , 363–403.
Levitus, S., , J. I. Antonov, , and T. P. Boyer, 2005: Warming of the world ocean, 1955–2003. Geophys. Res. Lett, 32 .L02604, doi:10.1029/2004GL021592.
Meehl, G. A., and Coauthors, 2006: Climate change projections for the twenty-first century and climate change in the CCSM3. J. Climate, 19 , 2482–2495.
Peacock, S., , M. Maltrud, , and R. Bleck, 2005: Putting models to the data test: A case study using Indian Ocean CFC-11 data. Ocean Modell, 9 , 1–22.
Raper, S. C. B., , J. M. Gregory, , and R. J. Stouffer, 2002: The role of climate sensitivity and ocean heat uptake on AOGCM transient temperature response. J. Climate, 15 , 124–130.
Smith, R. D., , and P. R. Gent, 2004: Reference manual for the Parallel Ocean Program (POP): Ocean component of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM2.0 and CCSM3.0). Los Alamos National Laboratory Tech. Rep. LA-UR-02-2484, 75 pp. [Available online at http://www.ccsm.ucar.edu/models/ccsm3.0/pop.].
Willey, D. A., , R. A. Fine, , R. E. Sonnerup, , J. L. Bullister, , W. M. Smethie, , and M. J. Warner, 2004: Global oceanic chlorofluorocarbon inventory. Geophys. Res. Lett, 31 .L01303, doi:10.1029/2003GL018816.