This study benefited much from discussions with Dave Randall, Sumant Nigam, Shuntai Zhou, Isaac Held, Steve Klein, Eric Maloney, Norm McFarlane, Gavin Schmidt, and Yogesh Sud. The careful and insightful reviews by Duane Waliser and an anonymous reviewer helped significantly to improving the manuscript. Gary Russell kindly provided a detailed description of the GISS-AOM model. We acknowledge the international modeling groups for providing their data for analysis, the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) for collecting and archiving the model data, the JSC/CLIVAR Working Group on Coupled Modeling (WGCM) and their Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) and Climate Simulation Panel for organizing the model data analysis activity, and the IPCC WG1 TSU for technical support. The IPCC Data Archive at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is supported by the Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy. J. L. Lin was supported by the U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability Program (CLIVAR) Climate Model Evaluation Project (CMEP; information available online at http://www.usclivar.org/); the NOAA OGP CLIVAR-Pacific Program; NOAA OGP CDEP Program; the NASA Modeling, Analysis and Prediction (MAP) Program; and the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. B. E. Mapes was supported by NSF ATM-0336790K and the NOAA OGP CLIVAR-Pacific Program. K. R. Sperber was supported under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Climate Change Prediction Program by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48. A. Del Genio was supported by the NASA Precipitation Measurement Missions Program.
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