GCH was supported by NSF Grants ATM-0002206 and ATM-0296007, by NOAA Grant NA16GP2683 and NOAA’s Office of Global programs, DOE in conjunction with the Climate Change Data and Detection element, and by Duke University. ERA-40 data used in this study have been obtained from the ECMWF data server. We thank Jesse Kenyon and Daithi Stone for help and discussion, and two anonymous reviewers and Tom Smith for their helpful comments.
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