This research has been supported by grants from the National Science Foundation’s Atmospheric Division under NSF Grant 0531771 (PJW) and a DOE ARM Grant 3506b42 (JAC). ERA-40 data used in this study were obtained from the ECMWF data server. We would particularly like to acknowledge Frederic Vitart, Steven Woolnough, Tim Palmer, and Martin Miller for making the serial integrations of the ECMWF model available for analysis.
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