Comments on an earlier version of the manuscript by B. Timbal and P. Hope are appreciated. This work was initiated when DT visited BMRC in 2004. DT is grateful for support provided by BMRC for that visit and for funding provided by the National Science Foundation Climate Dynamics Program.
Ansell, T. J., , C. J. C. Reason, , I. N. Smith, , and K. Keay, 2000: Evidence for decadal variability in southern Australian rainfall and relationships with regional pressure and sea surface temperature. Int. J. Climatol., 20 , 1113–1129.
Arblaster, J. M., , and G. A. Meehl, 2006: Contributions of external forcings to southern annular mode trends. J. Climate, 19 , 2896–2905.
Cai, W. J., , P. H. Whetton, , and D. J. Karoly, 2003: The response of the Antarctic Oscillation to increasing and stabilized atmospheric CO2. J. Climate, 16 , 1525–1538.
Fyfe, J. C., , G. J. Boer, , and G. M. Flato, 1999: The Arctic and Antarctic Oscillations and their projected changes under global warming. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26 , 1601–1604.
Gillett, N. P., , T. D. Kell, , and P. D. Jones, 2006: Regional climate impacts of the Southern Annular Mode. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 .L23704, doi:10.1029/2006GL027721.
Hall, A., , and M. Visbeck, 2002: Synchronous variability in the Southern Hemisphere atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean resulting from the annular mode. J. Climate, 15 , 3043–3057.
Haylock, M. R., and Coauthors, 2006: Trends in total and extreme South American rainfall in 1960–2000 and links with sea surface temperature. J. Climate, 19 , 1490–1512.
Karoly, D. J., 1990: The role of transient eddies in the low-frequency zonal variations in the Southern Hemisphere circulation. Tellus, 42A , 41–50.
Kushner, P. J., , I. M. Held, , and T. L. Delworth, 2001: Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation response to global warming. J. Climate, 14 , 2238–2249.
Lavery, B., , G. Joung, , and N. Nicholls, 1997: An extended high-quality historical rainfall dataset for Australia. Aust. Meteor. Mag., 46 , 27–38.
L’Heureux, M. L., , and D. W. J. Thompson, 2006: Observed relationships between the El Niño–Southern Oscillation and the extratropical zonal-mean circulation. J. Climate, 19 , 276–287.
Li, Y., , W. Cai, , and E. P. Campbell, 2005: Statistical modeling of extreme rainfall in southwest Western Australia. J. Climate, 18 , 852–863.
McBride, J. L., , and N. Nicholls, 1983: Seasonal relationships between Australian rainfall and the Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111 , 1998–2004.
Meneghini, B., , I. Simmonds, , and I. N. Smith, 2007: Association between Australian rainfall and the Southern Annular Mode. Int. J. Climatol., 27 , 109–121.
Miller, R. L., , G. A. Schmidt, , and D. T. Shindell, 2006: Forced annular variations in the 20th century Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report models. J. Geophys. Res., 111 .D18101, doi:10.1029/2005JD006323.
Mills, G. A., , G. Weymouth, , J. Lorkin, , M. Manton, , E. Ebert, , J. Kelly, , D. Jones, , and G. deHoedt, 1997: A national objective rainfall analysis system. BMRC Techniques Development Rep. 1, Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, Australia, 30 pp.
Power, S., , F. Tseitkin, , S. Torok, , B. Lavery, , R. Dahni, , and B. McAvaney, 1998: Australian temperature, Australian rainfall and the Southern Oscillation, 1910–1992: Coherent variability and recent changes. Aust. Meteor. Mag., 47 , 85–101.
Reason, C. J. C., , and M. Rouault, 2005: Links between Antarctic Oscillation and winter rainfall over western South Africa. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32 .L07705, doi:10.1029/2005GL022419.
Rogers, J. C., , and H. van Loon, 1982: Spatial variability of sea level pressure and 500 mb height anomalies over the Southern Hemisphere. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110 , 1375–1392.
Shindell, D. T., , and G. A. Schmidt, 2004: Southern Hemisphere climate response to ozone changes and greenhouse gas increases. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31 .L18209, doi:10.1029/2004GL020724.
Shindell, D. T., , R. L. Miller, , G. Schmidt, , and L. Pandolfo, 1999: Simulation of recent northern winter climate trends by greenhouse-gas forcing. Nature, 399 , 452–455.
Silvestri, G. E., , and C. S. Vera, 2003: Antarctic Oscillation signal on precipitation anomalies over southeastern South America. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 .2115, doi:10.1029/2003GL018277.
Smith, C. A., , and P. Sardeshmukh, 2000: The effect of ENSO on the intraseasonal variance of surface temperature in winter. Int. J. Climatol., 20 , 1543–1557.
Thompson, D. W. J., , and J. M. Wallace, 2000: Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part I: Month-to-month variability. J. Climate, 13 , 1000–1016.
Thompson, D. W. J., , M. P. Baldwin, , and S. Solomon, 2005: Stratosphere–troposphere coupling in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 62 , 708–715.
Trenberth, K. E., 1979: Interannual variability of the 500 mb zonal-mean flow in the Southern Hemisphere. Mon. Wea. Rev., 107 , 1515–1524.
Watterson, I. G., 2001: Zonal wind vacillation and its interaction with the ocean: Implications for interannual variability and predictability. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , 23965–23976.