We would like to acknowledge the insightful comments of Hyodae Seo, Billy Kessler, and two anonymous reviewers. This work has been funded by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) as category 7 of the RR2002 Project. The numerical calculation was carried out at the Earth Simulator Center. The authors wish to acknowledge the support of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC). We acknowledge Michael McPhaden for his useful comments, and Sharon DeCarlo, Yingshuo Shen, and Kazutoshi Horiuchi, who have diligently maintained our access to the IROAM data. COADS data can be downloaded from the ICOADS Web site (http://icoads.noaa.gov/) or the Asia Pacific Data Research Center Web site (http://apdrc.soest.hawaii.edu/).
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