This research was supported by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) through its sponsorship of the International Pacific Research Center (IPRC).
Baquero-Bernal, A., , M. Latif, , and S. Legutke, 2002: On dipolelike variability of sea surface temperature in the tropical Indian Ocean. J. Climate, 15 , 1358–1368.
Behera, S. K., , S. A. Rao, , N. H. Saji, , and T. Yamagata, 2003: Comments on “A cautionary note on the interpretation of EOFs.”. J. Climate, 16 , 1087–1093.
Clark, C. O., , P. J. Webster, , and J. Cole, 2003: Interdecadal variability of the relationship between the Indian Ocean zonal mode and East African rainfall anomalies. J. Climate, 16 , 548–554.
Esenkov, O. E., , D. B. Olson, , and R. Bleck, 2003: A study of the circulation and salinity budget of the Arabian Sea with an isopycnic coordinate ocean model. Deep-Sea Res. II, 50 , 2091–2110.
Grodsky, S. A., , J. A. Carton, , and R. Murtugudde, 2001: Anomalous surface currents in the tropical Indian Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28 , 4207–4210.
Haugen, V. E., , O. M. Johannesen, , and G. Evensen, 2002: Indian Ocean: Validation of the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model and ENSO events during 1958–1998. J. Geophys. Res., 107 .3043, doi:10.129/2000JC000330.
Jensen, T. G., 1993: Equatorial variability and resonance in a wind-driven Indian Ocean model. J. Geophys. Res., 98 , 22533–22552.
Jensen, T. G., 1998a: Description of a Thermodynamic Ocean Modelling System (TOMS). Atmospheric Science Paper 670, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 50 pp.
Jensen, T. G., 2001b: Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal exchange of salt and tracers in an ocean model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28 , 3967–3970.
Jensen, T. G., 2003a: Barotropic mode errors in an Indian Ocean model associated with the GWR method. Global Planet. Change, 37 , 1–18.
Jensen, T. G., 2003b: Cross-equatorial pathways of salt and tracers from the northern Indian Ocean: Modelling results. Deep-Sea Res. II, 50 , 2111–2127.
Lau, N-C., , and M. J. Nath, 2004: Coupled GCM simulation of atmosphere–ocean variability associated with zonally asymmetric SST changes in the tropical Indian Ocean. J. Climate, 17 , 245–265.
Levitus, S., , and T. P. Boyer, 1994: Temperature. Vol. 4, World Ocean Atlas 1994, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 4, 117 pp.
Levitus, S., , R. Burgett, , and T. P. Boyer, 1994: Salinity. Vol. 3, World Ocean Atlas 1994, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 3, 99 pp.
Manghnani, V., , B. Subrahmanyam, , L. Xie, , and J. M. Morrison, 2003: Numerical simulation of seasonal and interannual Indian Ocean upper layer circulation using Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model. J. Geophys. Res., 108 .3240, doi:10.1029/2002JC001567.
Miyama, T., , J. P. McCreary, , T. G. Jensen, , J. Loschnigg, , S. Godfrey, , and A. Ishida, 2003: Structure and dynamics of the Indian Ocean cross-equatorial cell. Deep-Sea Res. II, 50 , 2023–2047.
Murtugudde, R. G., , J. P. McCreary, , and A. J. Busalacchi, 2000: Oceanic processes associated with anomalous events in the Indian Ocean with relevance to 1997–1998. J. Geophys. Res., 105 , 3295–3306.
Rao, S. A., , and S. K. Behera, 2005: Subsurface influence on SST in the tropical Indian Ocean: Structure and interannual variability. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 39 , 103–135.
Rao, S. A., , S. K. Behera, , Y. Masumoto, , and T. Yamagata, 2002a: Interannual subsurface variability in the tropical Indian Ocean with special emphasis on the Indian Ocean Dipole. Deep-Sea Res. II, 49 , 1549–1572.
Rao, S. A., , V. V. Gopalakrishna, , S. R. Shetye, , and T. Yamagata, 2002b: Why were cool SST anomalies absent in the Bay of Bengal during the 1997 Indian Ocean dipole event? Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 .1555, doi:10.1029/2001GL014645.
Saji, N. H., , and T. Yamagata, 2003a: Possible impacts of Indian Ocean dipole mode events on global climate. Climate Res., 25 , 151–169.
Saji, N. H., , and T. Yamagata, 2003b: Structure of SST and surface wind variability during Indian Ocean dipole mode events: COADS observations. J. Climate, 16 , 2735–2751.
Shinoda, T., , and M. A. Alexander, 2004: Remote response of the Indian Ocean to interannual SST variations in the tropical Pacific. J. Climate, 17 , 362–372.
Smagorinsky, J., 1963: General circulation experiments with the primitive equations. I. The basic experiment. Mon. Wea. Rev., 91 , 99–164.
Vinayachandran, P. N., , N. H. Saji, , and T. Yamagata, 1999: Response of the equatorial Indian Ocean to an unusual wind event during 1994. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26 , 1613–1616.
Vinayachandran, P. N., , S. Iizuka, , and T. Yamagata, 2002: Indian Ocean dipole mode events in an ocean general circulation model. Deep-Sea Res. II, 49 , 1573–1596.
Webster, P. J., , A. M. Moore, , J. P. Loschnigg, , and R. R. Leben, 1999: Coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics in the Indian Ocean during 1997–98. Nature, 401 , 356–360.
Xie, S-P., , H. Annamalai, , F. A. Schott, , and J. P. McCreary, 2002: Structure and mechanisms of south Indian Ocean climate variability. J. Climate, 15 , 864–878.