This study is supported by a joint grant from the National Science Foundation, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. We thank Dr. P. S. Schopf for the development of the Poseidon ocean model, which is used as the oceanic component of the coupled model for this study. We would also like to thank Drs. T. G. Jensen, D. Straus, and two anonymous reviewers for many constructive comments and suggestions for its revision.
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