Discussions with Prof. David Straus of COLA and comments from Prof. Brian Hoskins are appreciated. Dr. Gisela Speidel is thanked for editorial assistance. This research is partly funded by the Japan Agency for Marine–Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) through its sponsorship of the International Pacific Research Center (IPRC). The Max Planck Institute makes the ECHAM model available to the IPRC under a cooperative agreement. We thank the CCSR/University of Tokyo for making available the model for our use. The authors sincerely thank all of the three anonymous reviewers, whose comments and critiques improved the quality of the manuscript.
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