We sincerely acknowledge the financial support from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture through the Center of Excellence (COE), Graduate School of Environmental Earth Sciences, Hokkaido University. The first author is also supported by the Mitsubishi Trust Yamamuro Memorial Scholarship Foundation, Tokyo. The model and technical notes are provided by the CSIRO, Marine Research, Australia. The comments received on the presentation of this work on the Indian Ocean Modeling Workshop held at the International Pacific Research Center (IPRC), Hawaii, during December 2004, helped to improve the manuscript. S. Godfrey, A. Schiller, Q. Song, and N. Schneider are acknowledged for their comments, and R. Wajsowicz for her comments, in the earlier stages of this work. Comments from anonymous reviewers greatly helped to improve the quality of manuscript. T. Ikeda is acknowledged for proofreading. Ferret software (NOAA/PMEL) is used for plotting.
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