This study is supported by a joint grant from the National Science Foundation, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. We thank Dr. Jensen and three anonymous reviewers for providing many constructive suggestions. We thank Prof. P. S. Schopf for the development of the Poseidon ocean model, which is used as the oceanic component of the coupled model for this study. We also thank Prof. D. Straus and an anonymous reviewer within COLA for carefully reading an early version of the manuscript and providing many constructive suggestions for its revision.
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