S. J. Camargo would like to thank Anthony G. Barnston and Adam H. Sobel for valuable discussions. This work was support in part by NOAA through a block grant to the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (S. J. Camargo and A. W. Robertson), Department of Energy Grant DE-FG02ER6413 (M. Ghil and A. W. Robertson), and the National Science Foundation under Grants SCI-0225642 and IIS-0431085 (S. J. Gaffney and P. Smyth). M. Ghil also wishes to acknowledge the European Commission’s Project No. 12975 (NEST) “Extreme Events: Causes and Consequences (E2-C2).”
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