The authors thank Masahiro Watanabe for kindly providing his model. Early discussions with Brian Mapes were important in introducing the subject. This study is supported by NASA (Grant NAG-10045) and the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology.
Adler, R. F., , C. Kidd, , G. Petty, , M. Morissey, , and H. M. Goodman, 2001: Intercomparison of global precipitation projects: The third Precipitation Intercomparison Project (PIP-3). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82 , 1377–1396.
Bordoni, S., , P. E. Ciesielski, , R. H. Johnson, , B. D. McNoldy, , and B. Stevens, 2004: The low-level circulation of the North American monsoon as revealed by QuikSCAT. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31 .L10109, doi:10.1029/2004GL020009.
Chelton, D. B., , M. H. Freilich, , and S. K. Esbensen, 2000: Satellite observations of the wind jets off the Pacific coast of Central America. Part I: Case studies and statistical characteristics. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 1993–2018.
Curtis, S., 2002: Interannual variability of the bimodal distribution of summertime rainfall over Central America and tropical storm activity in the far-eastern Pacific. Climate Res., 22 , 141–146.
Curtis, S., 2004: Diurnal cycle of rainfall and surface winds and the mid-summer drought of Mexico/Central America. Climate Res., 27 , 1–8.
Higgins, R. W., , J. E. Janowiak, , and Y. Yao, 1996: A Gridded Hourly Precipitation Database for the United States (1963–1993). NCEP/Climate Prediction Center Atlas 1, 47 pp.
Higgins, R. W., , Y. Chen, , and A. V. Douglas, 1999: Interannual variability of the North American warm season precipitation regime. J. Climate, 12 , 653–680.
Huffman, G. J., , R. F. Adler, , B. Rudolph, , U. Schneider, , and P. Keehn, 1995: Global precipitation estimates based on a technique for combining satellite based estimates, rain gauge analysis, and NWP model precipitation information. J. Climate, 8 , 1284–1295.
Inoue, M., , I. C. Handoh, , and G. R. Bigg, 2002: Bimodal distribution of tropical cyclogenesis in the Caribbean: Characteristics and environmental factors. J. Climate, 15 , 2897–2905.
Johnson, R. H., , P. E. Ciesielski, , B. D. McNoldy, , P. J. Rogers, , and R. K. Taft, 2007: Multiscale variability of the flow during the North American Monsoon Experiment. J. Climate, 20 , 1628–1648.
Kidd, C., , D. R. Kniveton, , M. C. Todd, , and T. J. Bellerby, 2003: Satellite rainfall estimation using combined passive microwave and infrared algorithms. J. Hydrometeor., 4 , 1088–1104.
Lin, J., , B. Mapes, , M. Zhang, , and M. Newman, 2004: Stratiform precipitation, vertical heating profiles, and the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci., 61 , 296–309.
Madden, R. A., , and P. R. Julian, 1994: Observations of the 40–50-day tropical oscillation—A review. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122 , 814–837.
Magana, V., , and E. Caetano, 2005: Temporal evolution of summer convective activity over the Americas warm pools. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32 .L02803, doi:10.1029/2004GL021033.
Magana, V., , J. A. Amador, , and S. Medina, 1999: The midsummer drought over Mexico and Central America. J. Climate, 12 , 1577–1588.
Maloney, E. D., , and D. L. Hartmann, 2000: Modulation of eastern north Pacific hurricanes by the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Climate, 13 , 1451–1460.
Mapes, B. E., , T. T. Warner, , M. Xu, , and A. J. Negri, 2003: Diurnal patterns of rainfall in northwestern South America. Part I: Observations and context. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 799–812.
Mapes, B. E., , P. Liu, , and N. Buenning, 2005: Indian monsoon onset and the Americas midsummer drought: Out-of-equilibrium responses to smooth seasonal forcing. J. Climate, 18 , 1109–1115.
Thompson, R. M., , S. W. Payne, , E. E. Recker, , and R. J. Reed, 1979: Structure and properties of synoptic scale wave disturbances in the intertropical convergence zone of the eastern Atlantic. J. Atmos. Sci., 36 , 53–72.
Watanabe, M., , and M. Kimoto, 2000: Atmosphere-ocean coupling in the North Atlantic: A positive feedback. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126 , 3343–3369.
Wentz, F. J., , and D. K. Smith, 1999: A model function for the ocean-normalised radar cross-section at 14 GHz derived from NSCAT observations. J. Geophys. Res., 104 , 11499–11514.
Wentz, F. J., , C. Gentemann, , D. Smith, , and D. Chelton, 2000: Satellite measurements of sea surface temperature through clouds. Science, 288 , 847–850.
Xie, P., , and P. A. Arkin, 1997: Global precipitation: A 17-year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical model outputs. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 2539–2558.
Xie, S-P., , H. Xu, , W. S. Kessler, , and M. Nonaka, 2005: Air–sea interaction over the eastern Pacific warm pool: Gap winds, thermocline dome, and atmospheric convection. J. Climate, 18 , 5–25.
Xie, S-P., and Coauthors, 2007: A regional ocean–atmosphere model for eastern Pacific climate: Toward reducing tropical biases. J. Climate, 20 , 1504–1522.