The authors wish to express their sincere thanks to members of Physical Oceanography Group at Tohoku University for their fruitful comments and heartfelt encouragements. Three anonymous reviewers gave useful comments. The first author (SS) was financially supported by the 21st Century Center-of-Excellence (COE) Program, “Advanced Science and Technology Center for the Dynamic Earth (E-ASTEC),” at Tohoku University. This study was done as part of the second author’s (KH) research program supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research by the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture.
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