A considerable part of this study was done during the periodical work of SKG at IFM-GEOMAR during the last years. He thanks IFM-GEOMAR for its hospitality. We appreciate the help of our colleagues at IFM-GEOMAR: Karl Bumke, Ute Hecht, Thomas Martin, Anne Meyer, and Frauke Nevoigt. Special thanks to Scott Woodruff of NOAA/CDC (Boulder) and Steve Worley of DSS/NCAR (Boulder), who made available the ICOADS data for us. Discussions on different aspects of this work with Simon Josey and Liz Kent of SOC (Southampton), Andreas Sterl of KNMI (De Bilt), and Glenn White of NCEP (Camp Spring) were very helpful. Suggestions and criticism of anonymous reviewers and of the editor largely helped to improve the manuscript. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Sonderforschungsbereich SFB-460, Russian Ministry of Science and Education, under the World Ocean Federal Program and by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant 05-05-64882).
Akima, H., 1970: A new method of interpolation and smooth curve fitting based on local procedures. J. Assoc. Comput. Mach., 17 , 589–602.
Bauer, M., , A. D. Del Genio, , and J. R. Lanzante, 2002: Observed and simulated temperature–humidity relationships: Sensitivity to sampling and analysis. J. Climate, 15 , 203–215.
Bengtsson, L., , K. I. Hodges, , and S. Hagemann, 2004: Sensitivity of the ERA-40 reanalysis to the observing system: Determination of the global atmospheric circulation from reduced observations. Tellus, 56A , 456–471.
Bentamy, A., , K. B. Katsaros, , A. M. Mestas-Nuñez, , W. M. Drennan, , E. B. Forde, , and H. Roquet, 2003: Satellite estimates of wind speed and latent heat flux over the global oceans. J. Climate, 16 , 637–656.
Bignami, F., , S. Marullo, , R. Santorelly, , and M. E. Schiano, 1995: Long-wave radiation budget in the Mediterranean Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 100 , 2501–2514.
Blanc, T. V., 1985: Variation of bulk-derived surface flux, stability and roughness results due to the use of different transfer coefficient schemes. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 15 , 650–669.
Blanc, T. V., 1986: The effect of inaccuracies in weather ship data on bulk-derived estimates of flux, stability, and sea-surface roughness. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 3 , 12–26.
Brohan, P., , N. A. Rayner, , M. Vanicek, , S. F. B. Tett, , and E. C. Kent, 2003: Combined estimates of uncertainties in gridded marine temperature fields due to measurement errors and under-sampling of variability. Proc. Second JCOMM Workshop on Advances in Marine Climatology (CLIMAR-II), Brussels, Belgium, JCOMM, CD-ROM, WMO/TD-No. 1199.
Brunke, M. A., , C. W. Fairall, , X. Zeng, , L. Eymard, , and J. A. Curry, 2003: Which bulk aerodynamic algorithms are least problematic in computing ocean surface turbulent fluxes? J. Climate, 16 , 619–635.
Chang, E. K. M., 2005: Effects of secular changes in frequency of observations and observational errors on monthly mean MSLP summary statistics derived from ICOADS. J. Climate, 18 , 3623–3633.
Chou, S-H., , E. Nelkin, , J. Ardizzone, , R. M. Atlas, , and C-L. Shie, 2003: Surface turbulent heat and momentum fluxes over global oceans based on the Goddard Satellite Retrievals, version 2 (GSSTF2). J. Climate, 16 , 3256–3273.
Clark, N. E., , L. Eber, , R. M. Laurs, , J. A. Renner, , and J. F. T. Sour, 1974: Heat exchange between ocean and atmosphere in the eastern North Pacific for 1961-71. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS SSFR-682, 108 pp.
da Silva, A. M., , C. C. Young, , and S. Levitus, 1994: Anomalies of directly observed quantities. Vol. 2, Atlas of Surface Marine Data, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 2, 419 pp.
Eymard, L., and Coauthors, 1999: Surface fluxes in the North Atlantic current during CATCH/FASTEX. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 125 , 3563–3599.
Fairall, C. W., , E. F. Bradley, , J. E. Hare, , A. A. Grachev, , and J. B. Edson, 2003: Bulk parameterization of air–sea fluxes: Updates and verification for the COARE algorithm. J. Climate, 16 , 571–591.
Fung, I. Y., , D. E. Harrison, , and A. A. Lacis, 1984: On the variability of the net long-wave radiation at the ocean surface. Rev. Geophys., 22 , 177–193.
Gibson, J. K., , P. Kallberg, , A. Uppala, , S. Hernandes, , A. Nomura, , and A. Serrano, 1999: ERA-15 description. Version 2, ECMWF Reanalysis Project Report Series 1, ECMWF, Reading, United Kingdom, 77 pp.
Girdiuk, G. V., , T. V. Kirillova, , and S. P. Malevsky, 1985: Cloudiness influence on the oceanic albedo. Meteor. Hydrol., 12 , 63–69.
Gleckler, P., , and B. Weare, 1997: Uncertainties in global ocean surface heat flux climatologies derived from ship observations. J. Climate, 10 , 2764–2781.
Gulev, S. K., 1994: Influence of space–time averaging on the ocean–atmosphere exchange estimates in the North Atlantic midlatitudes. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24 , 1236–1255.
Gulev, S. K., 1999: Comparison of COADS release 1a winds with instrumental measurements in the Northwest Atlantic. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 16 , 133–145.
Gulev, S. K., , T. Jung, , and E. Ruprecht, 2002: Climatology and interannual variability in the intensity of synoptic-scale processes in the North Atlantic from the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data. J. Climate, 15 , 809–828.
Gulev, S. K., , V. Grigorieva, , K. M. Selemenov, , and O. Zolina, 2003a: Evaluation of surface winds and waves from voluntary observing ship data. Advances in Applications of Marine Climatology, WMO Guide to the Application in Marine Climatology, WMO, Geneva, Switzerland, 53–67.
Gulev, S. K., , V. Grigorieva, , A. Sterl, , and D. Woolf, 2003b: Global climatology of ocean waves from the VOS data. J. Geophys. Res., 108 .3236, doi:10.1029/2002JC001437.
Gulev, S. K., , T. Jung, , and E. Ruprecht, 2007: Estimation of the impact of sampling errors in the VOS observations on air–sea fluxes. Part II: Impact on trends and interannual variability. J. Climate, 20 , 302–315.
Hasse, L., , and S. D. Smith, 1997: Local sea surface wind, wind stress, and sensible and latent heat fluxes. J. Climate, 10 , 2711–2724.
Josey, S. A., 2001: A comparison of ECMWF, NCEP–NCAR, and SOC surface heat fluxes with moored buoy measurements in the subduction region of the northeast Atlantic. J. Climate, 14 , 1780–1789.
Josey, S. A., , D. Oakley, , and R. W. Pascal, 1997: On estimating the atmospheric longwave flux at the ocean surface from ship meteorological reports. J. Geophys. Res., 102 , C13. 27961–27972.
Josey, S., , E. C. Kent, , and P. K. Taylor, 1999: New insights into the ocean heat budget closure problem from analysis of the SOC air–sea flux climatology. J. Climate, 12 , 2856–2880.
Josey, S. A., , R. W. Pascal, , P. K. Taylor, , and M. J. Yelland, 2003: A new formula for determining the atmospheric longwave flux at the ocean surface at mid-high latitudes. J. Geophys. Res., 108 .3108, doi:10.1029/2002JC001418.
Jung, T., 2005: Systematic errors of the atmospheric circulation in the ECMWF forecasting system. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131 , 1045–1073.
Kaplan, A., , M. A. Cane, , Y. Kushnir, , A. C. Clement, , M. B. Blumenthal, , and B. Rajaopalan, 1998: Analyses of global sea surface temperatures 1856-1991. J. Geophys. Res., 103 , 18567–18589.
Kaplan, A., , Y. Kushnir, , and M. A. Cane, 2000: Reduced space optimal interpolation of historical marine sea level pressure: 1854–1992. J. Climate, 13 , 2987–3002.
Kaplan, A., , M. A. Cane, , and Y. Kushnir, 2003: Reduced space approach to the optimal analysis interpolation of historical marine observations: Accomplishments, difficulties, and prospects. Advances in the Applications of Marine Climatology, World Meteorological Organization, WMO Tech. Doc. 1081, 199–216.
Kent, E. C., , and P. K. Taylor, 1995: A comparison of sensible and latent heat flux estimates for the North Atlantic Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25 , 1530–1549.
Kent, E. C., , and D. I. Berry, 2005: Quantifying random measurement errors in voluntary observing ship meteorological observations. Int. J. Climatol., 25 , 843–852.
Kent, E. C., , P. K. Taylor, , B. S. Truscott, , and J. S. Hopkins, 1993a: The accuracy of voluntary observing ships’ meteorological observations—Results of the VSOP-NA. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 10 , 591–608.
Kent, E. C., , R. J. Tiddy, , and P. K. Taylor, 1993b: Correction of marine air temperature observations for solar radiation effects. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 10 , 900–906.
Kent, E. C., , P. Challenor, , and P. K. Taylor, 1999: A statistical determination of the random errors present in VOS meteorological reports. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 16 , 905–914.
Kent, E. C., , P. K. Taylor, , and P. Challenor, 2000: The effect of successive correction on variability estimates for climatological datasets. J. Climate, 13 , 1845–1857.
Kidson, J. W., , and K. E. Trenberth, 1988: Effects of missing data on estimates of monthly mean general circulation statistics. J. Climate, 1 , 1261–1275.
Kistler, R., and Coauthors, 2001: The NCEP–NCAR 50-Year Reanalysis: Monthly means CD-ROM and documentation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82 , 247–267.
Kubota, M., , A. Kano, , H. Muramatsu, , and H. Tomita, 2003: Intercomparison of various surface latent heat flux fields. J. Climate, 16 , 670–678.
Legler, D., 1991: Errors in five-day mean surface wind and temperature conditions due to inadequate sampling. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 8 , 705–712.
Lind, R. J., , K. B. Katsaros, , and M. Gube, 1984: Radiation budget components and their parameterization in JASIN. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 110 , 1061–1071.
Lindau, R., 2000: Climate Atlas of the Atlantic Ocean Derived from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set. Springer-Verlag, 488 pp.
Moore, G. W. K., , and I. A. Renfrew, 2002: An assessment of the surface turbulent heat fluxes from the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis over the western boundary currents. J. Climate, 15 , 2020–2037.
NCAR, 1999: Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS): Long marine reports/fixed marine reports (LMR.6/LMRF.6). Release 1a Documentation. [Available online at http://icoads.noaa.gov/e-doc/lmrf.].
Niekamp, K., 1992: Untersuchung zur Gute der Parametrizierung von Malevsky-Malevich zur Bestimmung der solaren Einsrahlung an der Oceanoberflache. (Investigation of the skills of Malevsky-Malevich parameterization of short-wave radiation at the ocean surface). M.Sc. thesis, Department of Marine Meteorology, Institut für Meereskunde, Kiel, Germany, 108 pp.
Oberhuber, J. M., 1988: An atlas based on the COADS data set: The budgets of heat, buoyancy and turbulent kinetic energy at the surface of the global ocean. MPI Rep. 15, 19 pp.
Oort, A., 1978: Adequacy of the rawinsonde network for global circulation studies tested through numerical model output. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106 , 174–195.
Renfrew, J., , G. W. K. Moore, , P. S. Guest, , and K. Bumke, 2002: A comparison of surface-layer, surface heat flux and surface momentum flux observations over the Labrador Sea with ECMWF analyses and NCEP reanalyses. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32 , 383–400.
Reynolds, R. W., , and T. M. Smith, 1994: Improved global sea surface temperature analyses using optimum interpolation. J. Climatol., 7 , 929–948.
Rouault, M., , C. J. C. Reason, , J. R. E. Lutjeharms, , and A. C. M. Beljaars, 2003: Underestimation of latent and sensible heat fluxes above the Agulhas Current in NCEP and ECMWF analyses. J. Climate, 16 , 776–782.
Schulz, J., , J. Meywerk, , S. Ewald, , and P. Schlüssel, 1997: Evaluation of satellite-derived latent heat fluxes. J. Climate, 10 , 2782–2795.
Smith, S. R., , D. M. Legler, , and K. V. Verzone, 2001: Quantifying uncertainties in NCEP reanalyses using high-quality research vessel observations. J. Climate, 14 , 4062–4072.
Smith, S. R., , J. Servain, , D. M. Legler, , J. N. Stricherz, , M. A. Bourassa, , and J. J. O’Brien, 2004: In situ–based pseudo–wind stress products for the tropical oceans. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 85 , 979–994.
Smith, T. M., , and R. W. Reynolds, 2003: Extended reconstruction of global sea surface temperatures based on COADS data (1854–1997). J. Climate, 16 , 1495–1510.
Taylor, J. R., 1982: An Introduction to Error Analysis. University Science Books, 270 pp.
The WGASF Group, 2000: Intercomparison and validation of ocean-atmosphere energy flux fields: Report of the Joint WCRP/SCOR WG on Air-Sea Fluxes, P. K. Taylor, Ed., WMO, 305 pp. [Available online at http://www.soc.soton.ac.uk/JRD/MET/WGASF.].
Weare, B. C., 1989: Uncertainties in estimates of surface heat fluxes derived from marine reports over the tropical and subtropical oceans. Tellus, 41A , 357–370.
Weare, B. C., , and P. T. Strub, 1981: The significance of sampling biases on calculated monthly mean oceanic surface heat fluxes. Tellus, 33 , 211–224.
Woodruff, S. D., , H. F. Diaz, , J. D. Elms, , and S. J. Worley, 1998: COADS release 2 data and metadata enhancements for improvements of marine surface flux fields. Phys. Chem. Earth, 23 , 517–526.
Worley, S. J., , S. D. Woodruff, , R. W. Reynolds, , S. J. Lubker, , and N. Lott, 2005: ICOADS release 2.1 data and products. Int. J. Climatol., 25 , 823–842.
Yu, L., , R. A. Weller, , and B. Sun, 2004a: Improving latent and sensible heat flux estimates for the Atlantic Ocean (1988–99) by a synthesis approach. J. Climate, 17 , 373–393.
Yu, L., , R. A. Weller, , and B. Sun, 2004b: Mean and variability of the WHOI daily latent and sensible heat fluxes at in situ flux measurement sites in the Atlantic Ocean. J. Climate, 17 , 2096–2118.
Zeng, X., , M. Zhao, , and R. Dickinson, 1998: Intercomparison of bulk aerodynamic algorithms for the computation of sea surface fluxes using TOGA COARE and TAO data. J. Climate, 11 , 2628–2644.
Zhang, H-M., , J. J. Bates, , and R. W. Reynolds, 2006: Advances in higher resolution Global Ocean Observing System: Sea surface wind speed perspective. Preprints, 14th Conf. on Interaction of the Sea and Atmosphere, Atlanta, GA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., CD-ROM, 6.5.
Zolina, O., , and S. K. Gulev, 2003: Synoptic variability of ocean–atmosphere turbulent fluxes associated with atmospheric cyclones. J. Climate, 16 , 3023–3041.