The Terra MODIS level 3 SSTs shown in Fig. 1 were obtained from the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) at NASA JPL in Pasadena, California (information online at http://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov). Dr. Gary Wick supplied the Special Sensor Microwave Imagery water vapor path data shown in Fig. 2. Other scientists and engineers contributing to the success of the cruise include Javier Zavala-Garay from the University of Miami; Brenda Dolan, Gustavo Pereira, and Andrea Saunders from Colorado State University; Scott Abbott and Sergio Pezoa from NOAA; and Allen White and Dave White for processing of the wind profiler data. The Mexican Navy personnel are gratefully acknowledged, in particular Captain Gustavo Montarde and translator F. Gonzalez-Belmonte. Miguel Lavin and Ruben Castro helped educate the first author on the GoC oceanography. This work was supported by the NOAA Office of Global Programs, in collaboration with the Navy of Mexico. We thank the many whose dedication made the North American Monsoon Experiment possible.
Badan-Dangon, A., C. E. Dorman, M. A. Merrifield, and C. D. Winant, 1991: The lower atmosphere over the Gulf of California. J. Geophys. Res., 96 , 877–896.
Bordoni, S., and B. Stevens, 2006: Principal component analysis of the summertime winds over the Gulf of California: A gulf surge index. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134 , 3395–3414.
Bordoni, S., P. E. Ciesielski, R. H. Johnson, B. D. McNoldy, and B. Stevens, 2004: The low-level circulation of the North American monsoon as revealed by QuikSCAT. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31 .L10109, doi:10.1029/2004GL020009.
Castro, R., R. Durazo, A. Mascarenhas, C. Collins, and A. Travina, 2006: Thermohaline variability and geostrophic circulation in the southern portion of the Gulf of California. Deep-Sea Res., 53 , 188–200.
Ecklund, W. L., D. A. Carter, and B. B. Balsley, 1988: A UHF wind profiler for the boundary layer: Brief description and initial results. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 5 , 432–441.
Fairall, C. W., E. F. Bradley, J. S. Godfrey, G. A. Wick, J. B. Edson, and G. S. Young, 1996a: Cool-skin and warm-layer effects on sea surface temperature. J. Geophys. Res., 101 , 1295–1308.
Fairall, C. W., E. F. Bradley, D. P. Rogers, J. B. Edson, and G. S. Young, 1996b: Bulk parameterization of air–sea fluxes for TOGA-COARE. J. Geophys. Res., 101 , 3747–3767.
Fairall, C. W., A. B. White, J. B. Edson, and J. E. Hare, 1997: Integrated shipboard measurements of the marine boundary layer. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 14 , 338–359.
Fairall, C. W., P. O. Persson, E. F. Bradley, R. E. Payne, and S. Anderson, 1998: A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part I: Theory and application. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 15 , 1229–1242.
Gille, S., S. L. Smith, and N. M. Statom, 2005: Global observations of the land breeze. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32 .L05605, doi:10.1029/2004GL022139.
Johnson, R. H., T. Rickenbach, S. A. Rutledge, P. Ciesielski, and W. Schubert, 1999: Trimodal characteristics of tropical convection. J. Climate, 12 , 2397–2418.
Johnson, R. H., P. E. Ciesielski, B. McNoldy, P. Rogers, and R. Taft, 2007: Multiscale variability of the flow during the North American Monsoon Experiment. J. Climate, 20 , 1628–1648.
Lang, T. J., D. A. Ahijevych, S. W. Nesbitt, R. E. Carbone, S. A. Rutledge, and R. Cifelli, 2007: Radar-observed characteristics of precipitating systems during NAME 2004. J. Climate, 20 , 1713–1733.
Lavin, M., and S. Marinone, 2003: An overview of the physical oceanography of the Gulf of California. Nonlinear Processes in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, O. U. Velasco Fuentes et al., Eds., Kluwer Academic, 173–204.
Lavin, M., E. Beier, V. G. J. Gomex-Valdex, and J. Garcia, 2006: On the summer poleward coastal current of SW México. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 .L02601, doi:10.1029/2005GL024686.
Lerczak, J., M. Herdershott, and C. Winant, 2001: Observations and modeling of coastal internal waves driven by a diurnal sea breeze. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , 19715–19729.
Marinone, S., 2003: A three-dimensional model of the mean and seasonal circulation of the Gulf of California. J. Geophys. Res., 108 .3325, doi:10.1029/2002JC001720.
Mascarenhas, A., R. Castro, C. Collins, and R. Durazo, 2004: Seasonal variation of geostrophic velocity and heat flux at the entrance to the Gulf of California, Mexico. J. Geophys. Res., 109 .C07008, doi:10.1029/2003JC002124.
McNoldy, B. D., P. E. Ciesielski, and R. H. Johnson, 2006: Diurnal cycle of sea surface winds and temperatures during the 2004 North American Monsoon Experiment. Preprints, 27th Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Monterey, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., CD-ROM, P2.2.
Mitchell, D. L., D. Ivanova, R. Rabin, T. Brown, and K. Redmond, 2002: Gulf of California sea surface temperatures and the North American monsoon: Mechanistic implications from observations. J. Climate, 15 , 2261–2281.
Post, M. J., and Coauthors, 1997: The Combined Sensor Program: An air–sea science mission in the central and western Pacific Ocean. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 2797–2815.
Schmitz, J. T., and S. L. Mullen, 1996: Water vapor transport associated with the summertime North American monsoon as depicted by ECMWF analyses. J. Climate, 9 , 1621–1634.
Stensrud, D. J., R. L. Gall, S. L. Mullen, and K. W. Howard, 1995: Model climatology of the Mexican monsoon. J. Climate, 8 , 1775–1793.
Young, S. A., C. M. R. Platt, R. T. Austin, and G. R. Patterson, 2000: Optical properties and phase of some midlatitude, midlevel clouds in ECLIPS. J. Appl. Meteor., 39 , 135–153.