We are thankful to the NOAA CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center for providing the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis dataset online (www.cdc.noaa.gov), Jay Harris for data preparation, and two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments. Financial support was provided by grants from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA, through PACS and GAPP). This research was carried out in part under the auspices of the Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies (CIMAS), a joint institute of the University of Miami and NOAA, Cooperative Agreement NA17RJ1226. The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the funding agency.
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