We are indebted to Dr. C. Frankignoul for his thoughtful comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. We thank Dr. Zhiguang Qian for helpful comments on the paper. We also thank Drs. B. Kirk-Davidoff, A. Mjada, G. Branstator, and A. Gritsun for informing us (including their unpublished manuscripts) of the fluctuation–dissipation theorem at the end stage of the work. Comments from three anonymous reviewers have helped the presentation of the paper. This work is supported by DOE, NSF, and NOAA. This work is also partially supported by Chinese NSF and the Ocean University of China.
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