The data used in this study were acquired as part of TRMM. These algorithms were developed by the TRMM science team. The data were processed by the TRMM Science Data and Information System (TSDIS) and the TRMM office; they are archived and distributed by the Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center (GDAAC). TRMM is an international project jointly sponsored by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) office of Earth Science. The study was supported by the following grants: NSF ATM-0419618 and ATM-0311858, NASA NAG5-13563 and NNG05GH81G, and NOAA NA16GP1365.
Arakawa, A., , and W. H. Schubert, 1974: Interaction of a cumulus cloud ensemble with the large-scale environment, Part I. J. Atmos. Sci., 31 , 674–701.
Chakraborty, A., , and T. N. Krishnamurti, 2008: Improved forecasts of the diurnal cycle in the tropics using multiple global models. Part II: Asian summer monsoon. J. Climate, 21 , 4045–4067.
Chakraborty, A., , T. N. Krishnamurti, , and C. Gnanaseelan, 2007: Prediction of the diurnal change using a multimodel superensemble. Part II: Clouds. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135 , 4097–4116.
Emanuel, K. A., , and M. Zivkovic-Rothman, 1999: Development and evaluation of a convection scheme for use in climate models. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 1766–1782.
Huffman, G. J., , R. F. Adler, , M. Morrissey, , D. T. Bolvin, , S. Curtis, , R. Joyce, , B. McGavock, , and J. Susskind, 2001: Global precipitation at one-degree daily resolution from multisatellite observations. J. Hydrometeor., 2 , 36–50.
Huffman, G. J., and Coauthors, 2007: The TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA): Quasi-global, multiyear, combined-sensor precipitation estimates at fine scales. J. Hydrometeor., 8 , 38–55.
Krishnamurti, T. N., , and H. S. Bedi, 1988: Cumulus parameterization and rainfall rates: Part III. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116 , 583–599.
Krishnamurti, T. N., , Y. Ramanathan, , H. L. Pan, , R. J. Pasch, , and J. Molinari, 1980: Cumulus parameterization and rainfall rates I. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108 , 465–472.
Krishnamurti, T. N., , C. M. Kishtawal, , T. LaRow, , D. Bachiochi, , Z. Zhang, , C. E. Williford, , S. Gadgil, , and S. Surendran, 1999: Improved weather and seasonal climate forecasts from multimodel superensemble. Science, 285 , 1548–1550.
Krishnamurti, T. N., , C. M. Kishtawal, , T. LaRow, , D. Bachiochi, , Z. Zhang, , C. E. Williford, , S. Gadgil, , and S. Surendran, 2000a: Improving tropical precipitation forecasts from a multianalysis superensemble. J. Climate, 13 , 4217–4227.
Krishnamurti, T. N., , C. M. Kishtawal, , D. W. Shin, , and C. E. Williford, 2000b: Multimodel superensemble forecasts for weather and seasonal climate. J. Climate, 13 , 4196–4216.
Krishnamurti, T. N., and Coauthors, 2001: Real-time multianalysis–multimodel superensemble forecasts of precipitation using TRMM and SSM/I products. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129 , 2861–2883.
Krishnamurti, T. N., and Coauthors, 2003: Improved skill for the anomaly correlation of geopotential heights at 500 hPa. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 1082–1102.
Krishnamurti, T. N., , C. Gnanaseelan, , and A. Chakraborty, 2007: Prediction of the diurnal change using a multimodel superensemble Part I: Precipitation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135 , 3613–3632.
Krishnamurti, T. N., , S. Basu, , J. Sanjay, , and C. Gnanaseelan, 2008: Evaluation of several different planetary boundary layer schemes within a single model, a unified model and a multimodel superensemble. Tellus, 60A , 42–61.
Lord, S. J., , and A. Arakawa, 1980: Interaction of a cloud ensemble with the large-scale environment. Part II. J. Atmos. Sci., 37 , 2677–2692.
Lord, S. J., , W. C. Chao, , and A. Arakawa, 1982: Interaction of a cumulus cloud ensemble with the large-scale environment. Part IV: The discrete model. J. Atmos. Sci., 39 , 104–113.
Moorthi, S., , and M. J. Suarez, 1992: Relaxed Arakawa–Schubert: A parameterization of moist convection for general circulation models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 120 , 978–1002.
Pan, H-L., , and W. S. Wu, 1995: Implementing a mass flux convection parameterization package for the NMC medium-range forecast model. NMC Office Note 409, 40 pp.
Pleim, J. E., , and A. Xiu, 1995: Development and testing of a surface flux and planetary boundary layer model for application in a mesoscale models. J. Appl. Meteor., 34 , 16–32.
Raymond, D. J., , and A. M. Blyth, 1986: A stochastic mixing model for nonprecipitating cumulus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 43 , 2708–2718.
Reynolds, R. W., , and T. M. Smith, 1994: Improved global sea surface temperature analyses using optimum interpolation. J. Climate, 7 , 929–948.
Slingo, A., , R. Wilderspin, , and S. Brentnall, 1987: Simulation of the diurnal cycle of outgoing longwave radiation with an atmospheric GCM. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115 , 1451–1457.
Yang, S., , and E. A. Smith, 2006: Mechanisms for diurnal variability of global tropical rainfall observed from TRMM. J. Climate, 19 , 5190–5226.
Yun, W. T., , L. Stefanova, , and T. N. Krishnamurti, 2003: Improvement of multimodel superensemble technique for seasonal forecasts. J. Climate, 16 , 3834–3840.
Zhang, G. J., , and N. A. McFarlane, 1995: Sensitivity of climate simulations to the parameterization of cumulus convection in the Canadian Climate Centre general circulation model. Atmos.–Ocean, 33 , 407–446.