This work was jointly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 40523001, 40221503, and 40625014, the National Basic Research Program of China (2006CB403603), and the Chinese Academy of Sciences International Partnership Creative Group, titled “The Climate System Model Development and Application Studies.” A. Dai acknowledges the support of NASA Grant No. NNX07AD77G and NCAR’s Water Cycle Program. Beneficial discussions with Drs. Yun Qian and Phillip Arkin are highly appreciated. Helpful comments from two anonymous reviewers and the chief editor, Dr. Andrew Weaver, are also gratefully acknowledged.
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