The authors thank Mr. Eric Hackert for technical assistance with the SSM/I–QuikSCAT wind stress dataset, and Dr. Alfredo Ruiz-Barradas and two anonymous reviewers for valuable input to the manuscript. SSM/I (QuikSCAT) data are produced by Remote Sensing Systems and sponsored by the NASA Earth Science REASoN DISCOVER Project (Ocean Vector Winds Science Team, available online at www.remss.com). This work was supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Pan American Climate Studies (PACS) program through Grant NA17EC1483.
Atlas, R., R. N. Hoffman, S. C. Bloom, J. C. Jusem, and J. Ardizzone, 1996: A multiyear global surface wind velocity dataset using SSM/I wind observations. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77 , 869–882.
Bourassa, M. A., D. G. Vincent, and W. L. Wood, 1999: A flux parameterization including the effects of capillary waves and sea state. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 1123–1139.
Broccoli, A. J., and S. Manabe, 1992: The effects of orography on midlatitude Northern Hemisphere dry climates. J. Climate, 5 , 1181–1201.
Chelton, D. B., M. H. Freilich, and S. K. Esbensen, 2000a: Satellite observations of the wind jets off the Pacific coast of Central America. Part I: Case studies and statistical characteristics. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 1993–2018.
Chelton, D. B., M. H. Freilich, and S. K. Esbensen, 2000b: Satellite observations of the wind jets off the Pacific coast of Central America. Part II: Regional relationships and dynamical considerations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 2019–2043.
Chelton, D. B., M. G. Schlax, M. H. Freilich, and R. F. Milliff, 2004: Satellite measurements reveal persistent small-scale features in ocean winds. Science, 303 , 978–983.
Chiang, J. C. H., and D. J. Vimont, 2004: Analogous Pacific and Atlantic meridional modes of tropical atmosphere–ocean variability. J. Climate, 17 , 4143–4158.
Clarke, A. J., 1988: Inertial wind path and sea surface temperature patterns near the Gulf of Tehuantepec and Gulf of Papagayo. J. Geophys. Res., 93 , 15491–15501.
Curry, R. G., and M. S. McCartney, 2001: Ocean gyre circulation changes associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31 , 3374–3400.
Czaja, A., and C. Frankignoul, 2002: Observed impact of North Atlantic SST anomalies on the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate, 15 , 606–623.
Deser, C., and M. L. Blackmon, 1993: Surface climate variations over the North Atlantic Ocean during winter: 1900–93. J. Climate, 6 , 1743–1753.
Deser, C., and M. S. Timlin, 1997: Atmosphere–ocean interaction on weekly timescales in the North Atlantic and Pacific. J. Climate, 10 , 393–408.
Eden, C., and T. Jung, 2001: North Atlantic interdecadal variability: Oceanic response to the North Atlantic Oscillation (1865–1997). J. Climate, 14 , 676–691.
Enfield, D. B., and D. A. Mayer, 1997: Tropical Atlantic SST variability and its relation to El Niño-Southern Oscillation. J. Geophys. Res., 102 , 929–945.
Farber-Lorda, J., M. F. Lavın, M. A. Zapatero, and J. M. Robles, 1994: Distribution and abundance of Euphausids in the Gulf of Tehuantepec during wind forcing. Deep-Sea Res., 38 , 359–367.
Fiedler, P. C., 1994: Seasonal and interannual variability of coastal zone color scanner phytoplankton pigments and winds in the eastern tropical Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 99 , 18371–18384.
Ghil, M., and Coauthors, 2002: Advanced spectral methods for climatic time series. Rev. Geophys., 40 .1003, doi:10.1029/2000GR000092.
Hurrell, J. W., Y. Kushnir, M. Visbeck, and G. Ottersen, 2003: An overview of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The North Atlantic Oscillation: Climate Significance and Environmental Impact, Geophys. Monogr., Vol. 134, Amer. Geophys. Union, 1–35.
Kummerow, C., and Coauthors, 2000: The Status of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) after two years in orbit. J. Appl. Meteor., 39 , 1965–1982.
McClain, C. R., G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, 2004: An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series. Deep-Sea Res. II, 51 , 5–42.
Nigam, S., and E. DeWeaver, 1998: Influence of orography on the extratropical response to El Niño events. J. Climate, 11 , 716–734.
Palacios, D. M., and S. J. Bograd, 2005: A census of Tehuantepec and Papagayo eddies in the northeastern tropical Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32 .L23606, doi:10.1029/2005GL024324.
Reynolds, R. W., N. A. Rayner, T. M. Smith, D. C. Stokes, and W. Wang, 2002: An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate. J. Climate, 15 , 1609–1625.
Romero-Centeno, R., J. Zavala-Hidalgo, A. Gallegos, and J. J. O’Brien, 2003: Isthmus of Tehuantepec wind climatology and ENSO signal. J. Climate, 16 , 2628–2639.
Saravanan, R., and P. Chang, 2000: Interactions between the Pacific ENSO and tropical Atlantic climate variability. J. Climate, 13 , 2177–2194.
Schultz, D. M., W. E. Bracken, L. F. Bosart, G. J. Hakim, M. A. Bedrick, M. J. Dickinson, and K. R. Tyle, 1997: The 1993 superstorm cold surge: Frontal structure, gap flow, and tropical impact. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125 , 5–39.
Schultz, D. M., W. E. Bracken, and L. F. Bosart, 1998: Planetary- and synoptic-scale signatures associated with Central American cold surges. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126 , 5–27.
Seager, R., D. S. Battisti, J. Yin, N. Gordon, N. H. Naik, A. C. Clement, and M. A. Cane, 2002: Is the Gulf Stream responsible for Europe’s mild winters? Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 128 , 2563–2586.
Xie, P., and P. A. Arkin, 1997: Global precipitation: A 17-year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical model outputs. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 2539–2558.
Xie, S-P., and J. A. Carton, 2004: Tropical Atlantic variability: Patterns, mechanisms, and impacts. Earth’s Climate: The Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction, Geophys. Monogr., Vol. 147, Amer. Geophys. Union, 121–142.
Xie, S-P., H. Xu, W. S. Kessler, and M. Nonaka, 2005: Air–sea interaction over the eastern Pacific warm pool: Gap winds, thermocline dome, and atmospheric convection. J. Climate, 18 , 5–20.
Xu, H., S-P. Xie, Y. Wang, and J. Small, 2005: Effects of Central American mountains on the eastern Pacific winter ITCZ and moisture transport. J. Climate, 18 , 3856–3873.
Zamudio, L., H. E. Hurlburt, E. J. Metzger, S. L. Morey, J. J. O’Brien, C. Tilburg, and J. Zavala-Hidalgo, 2006: Interannual variability of Tehuantepec eddies. J. Geophys. Res., 111 .C05001, doi:10.1029/2005JC003182.