This study benefits from discussions with Hua-Lu Pan, Klaus Weickmann, Chris Bretherton, Minghua Zhang, George Kiladis, Clara Deser, Adam Sobel, and Xiaoqing Wu. The careful and insightful reviews of Paul Kushner and three anonymous reviewers helped a lot to improve the manuscript. J. L. Lin was supported by the NOAA CPO/CVP Program, NOAA CPO/CDEP Program, and NASA MAP Program. B. E. Mapes was supported by the NOAA CPO/CVP Program and by CPO/CPPA Grant GC05-039. W. Han was supported by NSF OCE-0452917 and NASA Ocean Vector Winds Program Award 1283568.
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