First and foremost, we are grateful to Dr. Isaac Held for his mentorship and inspiring conversations on various issues of climate change and climate dynamics during our years at Princeton. We also thank Clara Deser and Jeff Yin for his helpful internal review at NCAR. The insightful comments from the two anonymous reviewers have significantly improved the clarity of the manuscript. We acknowledge the international modeling group for providing their data for analysis, the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) for collecting and archiving the model data, the JSC/CLIVAR Working Group on Coupled Modeling (WGCM) and their Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) and Climate Simulation Panel for organizing the model data and analysis activity, and the IPCC WG1 TSU for technical support. The IPCC Data Archive at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is supported by the Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy. J. L. is supported by the Visiting Scientist Program of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research and the Advanced Study Program of the National Center for Atmospheric Research. D. M. W. F. is supported by a start-up grant from the University of Washington. G. C. is supported by the NOAA Climate and Global Change Postdoctoral Fellowship, administered by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, which is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.
Cane, M. A., , A. C. Clement, , A. Kaplan, , Y. Kushnir, , R. Murtugudde, , D. Pozdnyakov, , R. Seager, , and S. E. Zebiak, 1997: 20th century sea surface temperature trends. Science, 275 , 957–960.
Chang, E. K. M., 1995: The influence of Hadley circulation intensity changes on extratropical climate in an idealized model. J. Atmos. Sci., 52 , 2006–2024.
Chen, G., , and I. M. Held, 2007: Phase speed spectra and the recent poleward shift of Southern Hemisphere surface westerlies. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34 .L21805, doi:10.1029/2007GL031200.
Chen, G., , and P. Zurita-Gotor, 2008: The tropospheric jet response to prescribed zonal forcing in an idealized atmospheric model. J. Atmos. Sci., 65 , 2254–2271.
Chen, G., , I. M. Held, , and W. A. Robinson, 2007: Sensitivity to the latitude of the surface westerlies to surface friction. J. Atmos. Sci., 64 , 2899–2915.
Chen, G., , J. Lu, , and D. M. W. Frierson, 2008: Phase speed spectra and the latitude of surface westerlies: Interannual variability and global warming trend. J. Climate, 21 , 5942–5959.
Delworth, T. L., and Coauthors, 2006: GFDL’s CM2 global coupled climate models. Part I: Formulations and simulation characteristics. J. Climate, 19 , 643–674.
Frierson, D. M. W., 2006: Robust increases in midlatitude static stability in global warming simulations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 .L24816, doi:10.1029/2006GL027504.
Frierson, D. M. W., 2008: Midlatitude static stability in simple and comprehensive general circulation models. J. Atmos. Sci., 65 , 1049–1062.
Frierson, D. M. W., , I. Held, , and P. Zurita-Gotor, 2006: A gray-radiation aquaplanet moist GCM. Part I: Static stability and eddy scale. J. Atmos. Sci., 63 , 2548–2566.
Frierson, D. M. W., , J. Lu, , and G. Chen, 2007: The width of the Hadley cell in simple and comprehensive general circulation models. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34 .L18804, doi:10.1029/2007GL031115.
Garreaud, R. D., , and D. S. Battisti, 1999: Interannual (ENSO) and interdecadal (ENSO-like) variability in the Southern Hemisphere tropospheric circulation. J. Climate, 12 , 2113–2123.
Griffies, S. M., , M. J. Harrison, , R. C. Pacanowski, , and A. Rosati, 2003: A technical guide to MOM4. GFDL Ocean Group Tech. Rep. 5, NOAA/Geophysical Fluid Dynamical Laboratory, Princeton, NJ, 295 pp.
Haigh, J. D., , M. Blackburn, , and R. Day, 2005: The response of tropospheric circulation to perturbations in lower-stratospheric temperature. J. Climate, 18 , 3672–3685.
Hayashi, Y., 1971: A generalized method of resolving disturbances into progressive and retrogressive waves by space Fourier and time cross-spectral analyses. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 49 , 125–128.
Held, I. M., , and A. Y. Hou, 1980: Nonlinear axially symmetric circulations in a nearly inviscid atmosphere. J. Atmos. Res., 37 , 515–533.
Held, I. M., , and E. O’Brien, 1992: Quasigeostrophic turbulence in a three-layer model: Effects of vertical structure in the mean shear. J. Atmos. Sci., 49 , 1861–1870.
Held, I. M., and Coauthors, 2000: The general circulation of the atmosphere. Proc. 2000 Program in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics. Woods Hole, MA, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, 1–54. [Available online at http://gfd.whoi.edu.].
Knutson, T. R., , and S. Manabe, 1995: Time-mean response over the tropical Pacific to increased CO2 in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. J. Climate, 8 , 2181–2199.
Kushner, P. J., , I. M. Held, , and T. L. Delworth, 2001: Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation response to global warming. J. Climate, 14 , 2238–2249.
L’Heureux, M. L., , and D. W. J. Thompson, 2006: Observed relationships between the El Niño–Southern Oscillation and the extratropical zonal-mean circulation. J. Climate, 19 , 276–287.
Liu, Z., , S. J. Vavrus, , F. He, , N. Wen, , and Y. Zhang, 2005: Rethinking tropical ocean response to global warming: The enhanced equatorial warming. J. Climate, 18 , 4684–4700.
Lorenz, D. J., , and E. T. DeWeaver, 2007: The tropopause height and the zonal wind response to global warming in the IPCC scenario integrations. J. Geophys. Res., 112 .D10119, doi:10.1029/2006JD008087.
Lu, J., , G. Vecchi, , and T. Reichler, 2007: Expansion of the Hadley cell under global warming. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34 .L06805, doi:10.1029/2006GL028443.
Manabe, S., , and R. T. Wetherald, 1967: Thermal equilibrium of the atmosphere with a given distribution of relative humidity. J. Atmos. Sci., 24 , 241–259.
Phillips, N. A., 1954: Energy transformations and meridional circulations associated with simple baroclinic waves in a two-level, quasi-geostrophic model. Tellus, 6 , 273–286.
Randel, W. J., , and I. M. Held, 1991: Phase speed spectra of transient eddy fluxes and critical layer absorption. J. Atmos. Sci., 48 , 688–697.
Reichler, T., , M. Dameris, , and R. Sausen, 2003: Determining the tropopause height from gridded data. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 .2042, doi:10.1029/2003GL018240.
Seager, R., , and R. Murtugudde, 1997: Ocean dynamics, thermocline adjustment, and regulation of tropical SST. J. Climate, 10 , 521–534.
Seager, R., , N. Harnik, , Y. Kushnir, , W. Robinson, , and J. Miller, 2003: Mechanisms of hemispherically symmetric climate variability. J. Climate, 16 , 2960–2978.
Seager, R., and Coauthors, 2007: Model projection of an imminent transition to a more arid climate in southwestern North America. Science, 316 , 1181–1184.
Son, S-W., , and S. Lee, 2005: The response of westerly jets to thermal driving in a primitive equation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 62 , 3741–3757.
Van Oldenborgh, G. J., , S. Y. Philip, , and M. Collins, 2005: El Niño in a changing climate: A multi-model study. Ocean Sci., 1 , 81–95.
Vecchi, G. A., , B. J. Soden, , A. T. Wittenberg, , I. M. Held, , A. Leetmaa, , and M. J. Harrison, 2005: Weakening of tropical Pacific atmospheric circulation due to anthropogenic forcing. Nature, 441 , 73–76.
Walker, C. C., , and T. Schneider, 2006: Eddy influences on Hadley circulations: Simulations with an idealized GCM. J. Atmos. Sci., 63 , 3333–3350.
Wittenberg, A. T., , A. Rosati, , N-C. Lau, , and J. J. Ploshay, 2006: GFDL’s CM2 global coupled models. Part III: Tropical Pacific climate and ENSO. J. Climate, 19 , 698–722.
Wittman, M. A. H., , A. J. Charlton, , and L. M. Polvani, 2007: The effect of lower stratospheric shear on baroclinic instability. J. Atmos. Sci., 64 , 479–496.
World Meteorological Organization, 1957: Meteorology—A three-dimensional science: Second session of the commission for aerology. WMO Bull., IV , 134–138.
Yin, J. H., 2005: A consistent poleward shift of the storm tracks in simulations of 21st century climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32 .L18701, doi:10.1029/2005GL023684.
Zhang, M., , and H. Song, 2006: Evidence of deceleration of atmo spheric vertical overturning circulation over the tropical Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 .L12701, doi:10.1029/2006GL025942.