Thanks are due to CNPq for research support (306319/2004-7) and to FAPESP Serra do Mar project (04/09469-0). Thanks also to Dr. Ruibran dos Reis and to the anonymous reviewers for their comments and suggestions.
Carvalho, L. M. V., , C. Jones, , and B. Liebmann, 2004: The South Atlantic convergence zone: Intensity, form, persistence, relationships with intraseasonal to interannual activity and extreme rainfall. J. Climate, 17 , 88–108.
Cavalcanti, I. F. A., , and M. K. Kayano, 1999: High-frequency patterns of the atmospheric circulation over Southern Hemisphere and South America. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 69 , 179–193.
Cavalcanti, I. F. A., , and V. E. Kousky, cited. 2001: Drought in Brazil during summer and fall 2001 and associated atmospheric circulation features. [Available online at http://www.cptec.inpe.br/products/climanalise/artigos/criseing.PDF.].
Cavalcanti, I. F. A., , and V. Kousky, 2003: Climatology of the South American cold fronts. Preprints, Seventh Int. Conf. on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology and Oceanography, Wellington, New Zealand, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 6.5.
Cavalcanti, I. F. A., , C. K. Folland, , and A. W. Colman, 2002: Note on “Predictability of Northeast Brazil rainfall and real-time forecast skill, 1987–98”. J. Climate, 15 , 1993–1996.
Cunningham, C. A. C., , and I. F. A. Cavalcanti, 2006: Intraseasonal modes of variability affecting the South Atlantic Convergence Zone. Int. J. Climatol., 26 , 1165–1180.
Doyle, M. E., , and V. R. Barros, 2002: Midsummer low-level circulation and precipitation in subtropical South America and related sea surface temperature anomalies in the South Atlantic. J. Climate, 15 , 3394–3410.
Fasullo, J., , and P. J. Webster, 2002: Hydrologic signatures relating the Asian summer monsoon and ENSO. J. Climate, 15 , 3082–3095.
Fasullo, J., , and P. J. Webster, 2003: A hydrological definition of Indian monsoon onset and withdrawal. J. Climate, 16 , 3200–3211.
Figueroa, S. N., , P. Satyamurty, , and P. L. S. Dias, 1995: Simulations of the summer circulation over the South American region with an Eta coordinate model. J. Atmos. Sci., 52 , 1573–1584.
Fu, R., , B. Zhu, , and R. E. Dickinson, 1999: How do atmosphere and land surface influence seasonal changes of convection in the tropical Amazon. J. Climate, 12 , 1306–1321.
Gan, M. A., , V. E. Kousky, , and C. F. Ropelewski, 2004: The South America monsoon circulation and its relationship to rainfall over west-central Brazil. J. Climate, 17 , 47–66.
Gandu, A. W., , and J. E. Geisler, 1991: A primitive equations model study of the effect of topography on the summer circulation over tropical South America. J. Atmos. Sci., 48 , 1822–1836.
Garreaud, R., 2000: Intraseasonal variability of moisture and rainfall over the South American altiplano. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 3337–3346.
Garreaud, R., , and J. M. Wallace, 1998: Summertime incursions of midlatitude air into subtropical and tropical South America. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126 , 2713–2733.
Grimm, A. M., , C. Vera, , and R. Mechoso, 2004: The South American Monsoon System. The Global Monsoon System: Research and Forecast, WMO Tech. Doc. 1266, TMRP Rep. 70, 219–238.
Hastenrath, S., , and L. Heller, 1977: Dynamics of climatic hazards in Northeast Brazil. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 103 , 77–92.
Kistler, R., and Coauthors, 2001: The NCEP–NCAR 50-Year Reanalysis: Monthly means CD-ROM and documentation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82 , 247–267.
Kousky, V., , and C. F. Ropelewski, 1997: The Tropospheric Seasonally Varying Mean Climate over the Western Hemisphere (1979–1995). Atlas No. 3, NCEP/Climate Prediction Center, 135 pp.
Lenters, J., , and K. Cook, 1995: Simulation and diagnosis of the regional summertime precipitation climatology of South America. J. Climate, 8 , 2988–3005.
Li, W., , and R. Fu, 2004: Transition of the large-scale atmospheric and land surface conditions from the dry to the wet season over Amazonia as diagnosed by the ECMWF reanalysis. J. Climate, 17 , 2637–2651.
Liebmann, B., , and J. Marengo, 2001: The seasonality and interannual variability of rainfall in the Brazilian Amazon basin. J. Climate, 14 , 4308–4318.
Liebmann, B., , G. N. Kiladis, , J. A. Marengo, , T. Ambrizzi, , and J. D. Glick, 1999: Submonthly convective variability over South America and the South Atlantic convergence zone. J. Climate, 12 , 1877–1891.
Marengo, J., , B. Liebmann, , V. Kousky, , N. Filizola, , and I. Wainer, 2001: On the onset and end of the rainy season in the Brazilian Amazon basin. J. Climate, 14 , 833–852.
Marengo, J., , W. R. Soares, , C. Saulo, , and M. Nicolini, 2004: Climatology of the low-level jet east of the Andes as derived from the NCEP–NCAR reanalyses: Characteristics and temporal variability. J. Climate, 17 , 2261–2280.
Mo, K. C., , and J. N. Paegle, 2001: The Pacific–South American modes and their downstream effects. Int. J. Climatol., 21 , 1211–1229.
Nogués-Paegle, J., , and K. Mo, 1997: Alternating wet and dry conditions over South America during summer. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125 , 279–291.
Nogués-Paegle, J., , L. A. Byerle, , and K. C. Mo, 2000: Intraseasonal modulation of South American summer precipitation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 837–850.
Nogués-Paegle, J., and Coauthors, 2002: Progress in Pan American CLIVAR research: Understanding the South American monsoon. Meteorologica, 1–2 , 3–32.
Rao, V. B., , I. F. A. Cavalcanti, , and K. Hada, 1996: Annual variation of rainfall over Brazil and water vapor characteristics over South America. J. Geophys. Res., 101 , 26539–26551.
Siqueira, J. R., , and L. A. T. Machado, 2004: Influence of the frontal systems on the day-to-day convection variability over South America. J. Climate, 17 , 1754–1766.
Soman, M. K., , and K. K. Kumar, 1993: Space–time evolution of meteorological features associated with the onset of Indian summer monsoon. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121 , 1177–1194.