NPK was supported by a scholarship from the Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission. PMI, HW, and JMS were supported by and are members of the National Centre for Atmospheric Science, a Natural Environment Research Council Collaborative Centre. The authors thank Dr. George Kiladis and three anonymous reviewers for their comments, which resulted in substantial improvements to a previous version of this manuscript. The authors also thank Mr. John Stark of the Hadley Centre at the Met Office for his assistance in obtaining the OSTIA analyses. The Indian Meteorological Department provided the gridded dataset of climatological monsoon rainfall shown in Fig. 2b. The Indian Institute for Tropical Meteorology provided the all-India rainfall dataset used in Fig. 3. The wavelet transforms were computed using software provided by C. Torrence and G. Compo (available online at http://atoc.colorado.edu/research/wavelets.
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