C. Strong was supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship. Comments from two reviewers helped to improve the quality of the manuscript.
Ambaum, M. H. P., , B. J. Hoskins, , and D. B. Stephenson, 2001: Arctic Oscillation or North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate, 14 , 3495–3507.
Barnston, A. G., , and R. E. Livezey, 1987: Classification, seasonality and persistence of low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115 , 1083–1126.
Davis, R. E., , and S. Benkovic, 1994: Spatial and temporal variations of the January circumpolar vortex over the northern hemisphere. Int. J. Climatol., 14 , 415–428.
Dickson, R. R., , and J. Namias, 1976: North American influences on the circulation and climate of the North Atlantic sector. Mon. Wea. Rev., 104 , 1255–1265.
Fyfe, J. C., , and D. J. Lorenz, 2005: Characterizing midlatitude jet variability: Lessons from a simple GCM. J. Climate, 18 , 3400–3404.
Gerber, E. P., , and G. K. Vallis, 2005: A stochastic model for the spatial structure of annular patterns of variability and the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate, 18 , 2102–2118.
Gutzler, D. S., , D. Richard, , D. A. Salstein, , and J. P. Peixoto, 1988: Patterns of interannual variability in the Northern Hemisphere wintertime 850 mb temperature field. J. Climate, 1 , 949–964.
Hoerling, M. P., , M. Ting, , and A. Kumar, 1995: Zonal flow–stationary wave relationship during El Niño: Implications for seasonal forecasting. J. Climate, 8 , 1838–1852.
Hurrell, J. W., 1995: Decadal trends in the North Atlantic oscillation: Regional temperature and precipitation. Science, 269 , 676–679.
Hurrell, J. W., 1996: Influence of variations in extratropical wintertime teleconnections on Northern Hemisphere temperature. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23 , 665–668.
Koch, P., , H. Wernli, , and H. C. Davies, 2006: An event-based jet-stream climatology and typology. Int. J. Climatol., 26 , 283–301.
Kutzbach, J. E., 1970: Large-scale features of monthly mean Northern Hemisphere anomaly maps of sea-level pressure. Mon. Wea. Rev., 98 , 708–716.
Lamb, P. J., , and R. A. Peppler, 1987: North Atlantic Oscillation: Concept and an application. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 68 , 1218–1225.
Leathers, D. J., , B. Yarnal, , and M. A. Palecki, 1992: The Pacific/North American teleconnection pattern and United States climate. Part II: Temporal characteristics and index specification. J. Climate, 5 , 707–716.
Livezey, R. E., , and W. Y. Chen, 1983: Statistical field significance and its determination by Monte Carlo techniques. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111 , 49–59.
Lorenz, E. N., 1951: Seasonal and irregular variations of the Northern Hemisphere sea-level pressure profile. J. Meteor., 8 , 52–59.
Moses, T., , G. N. Kiladis, , H. F. Diaz, , and R. G. Barry, 1987: Characteristics and frequency of reversals in mean sea level pressure in the north Atlantic sector and their relationship to long-term temperature trends. Int. J. Climatol., 7 , 13–30.
Rogers, J. C., 1997: North Atlantic storm track variability and its association to the North Atlantic Oscillation and climate variability of northern Europe. J. Climate, 10 , 1635–1647.
Simmons, A. J., , J. M. Wallace, , and G. W. Branstator, 1983: Barotropic wave propagation and instability, and atmospheric teleconnection patterns. J. Atmos. Sci., 40 , 1363–1392.
Strong, C., , and R. E. Davis, 2005: The surface of maximum wind as an alternative to the isobaric surface for wind climatology. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32 .L04813, doi:10.1029/2004GL022039.
Strong, C., , and R. E. Davis, 2006a: Temperature-related trends in the vertical position of the summer upper tropospheric surface of maximum wind over the Northern Hemisphere. Int. J. Climatol., 26 , 1977–1997.
Strong, C., , and R. E. Davis, 2006b: Variability in the altitude of fast upper tropospheric winds over the Northern Hemisphere during winter. J. Geophys. Res., 111 .D10106, doi:10.1029/2005JD006497.
Thompson, D. W. J., , and J. M. Wallace, 1998: The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25 , 1297–1300.
Thompson, D. W. J., , and J. M. Wallace, 2000a: Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part I: Month-to-month variability. J. Climate, 13 , 1000–1016.
Thompson, D. W. J., , and J. M. Wallace, 2000b: Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part II: Trends. J. Climate, 13 , 1018–1036.
van Loon, H., , and J. Williams, 1976: The connection between trends of mean temperature and circulation at the surface: Part I. Winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 104 , 365–380.
van Loon, H., , and J. C. Rogers, 1978: The seesaw in winter temperatures between Greenland and northern Europe. Part I: General description. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106 , 296–310.
Wallace, J. M., , and D. S. Gutzler, 1981: Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109 , 784–811.
Wallace, J. M., , Y. Zhang, , and K-H. Lau, 1993: Structure and seasonality of interannual and interdecadal variability of the geopotential height and temperature fields in the Northern Hemisphere troposphere. J. Climate, 6 , 2063–2082.
Wallace, J. M., , Y. Zhang, , and J. A. Renwick, 1995: Dynamical contribution to hemispheric temperature trends. Science, 6 , 2063–2082.
Wallace, J. M., , Y. Zhang, , and L. Bajuk, 1996: Interpretation of interdecadal trends in Northern Hemisphere surface air temperature. J. Climate, 9 , 249–259.
Wittman, M. A. H., , A. J. Charlton, , and L. M. Polvani, 2005: On the meridional structure of annular modes. J. Climate, 18 , 2119–2122.
Zhang, Y., , J. M. Wallace, , and N. Iwasaka, 1996: Is climate variability over the North Pacific a linear response to ENSO. J. Climate, 9 , 1468–1478.