This work was funded by Cooperative Agreement NA050AR4311004 from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The ECHAM version 4.5 simulations were generated by D. DeWitt, X. Gong, S. Li, and L. Goddard, International Research Institute for Climate and Society, with computer resources provided in part by the NCAR CSL. The authors also thank A. G. Barnston for comments on an earlier version of this manuscript. The views expressed herein are those of the authors, and do not necessarily reflect the views of NOAA or any of its subagencies.
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