We wish to thank Pierre Dutrieux and Simon de Szoeke for help with the coding of the diagnostic analysis of the model output; K. Horuichi, Sharon DeCarlo, and Y. Shen for maintaining the data servers in Yokohama and the IPRC, which hold the model output; and Shan Sun for discussions on diapycnic fluxes. The computation was carried out on the Earth Simulator, Yokohama, Japan. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Science and Technology (Project Kyosei-7 RR2002), the Japan Agency for Marine–Earth Science and Technology, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
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