We thank Drs. Grant Branstator, Jian Lu, Jerry Meehl, and Ed Schneider for helpful discussions during the course of this study, and Drs. Mike Alexander, Jim Hurrell, and the anonymous reviewers for their constructive reviews of the manuscript. We thank Drs. Shang-Ping Xie and Yan Du for supplying the CMIP3 output. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from the NOAA CLIVAR program.
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