The authors would like to thank Dr. Stephen Klein for useful discussions that helped to improve the manuscript. The reanalysis data were provided by the NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD, Boulder, Colorado, from their Web site at http://www.cdc.noaa.gov. This research was supported by the Climate Prediction Program for the Americas (CPPA) of NOAA’s Climate Program Office. The Stratus Ocean Reference Station at 20°S, 85°W is supported by NOAA’s Climate Observation Program.
Albrecht, B. A., , D. A. Randall, , and S. Nicholls, 1988: Observations of marine stratocumulus during FIRE. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 69 , 618–626.
Bachiochi, D. R., , and T. N. Krishnamurti, 2000: Enhanced low-level stratus in the FSU coupled ocean–atmosphere model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 3083–3103.
Comstock, K. K., , C. S. Bretherton, , and S. E. Yuter, 2005: Mesoscale variability and drizzle in southeast Pacific stratocumulus. J. Atmos. Sci., 62 , 3792–3807.
Cronin, M. F., , N. Bond, , C. Fairall, , J. Hare, , M. J. McPhaden, , and R. A. Weller, 2002: Enhanced oceanic and atmospheric monitoring underway in eastern Pacific. Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 83 , 205. doi:10.1029/2002EO000137.
Cronin, M. F., , N. Bond, , C. Fairall, , and R. A. Weller, 2006: Surface cloud forcing in the east Pacific stratus deck/cold tongue/ITCZ complex. J. Climate, 19 , 392–409.
Duynkerke, P. G., , and J. Teixeira, 2001: Comparison of ECMWF reanalysis with FIRE I observations: Diurnal variations of marine stratocumulus. J. Climate, 14 , 1466–1478.
Fairall, C. W., , J. Hare, , and J. Snider, 1990: An eight-month sample of marine stratocumulus cloud fraction, albedo, and integrated liquid water. J. Climate, 3 , 847–864.
Fairall, C. W., , E. F. Bradley, , D. P. Rogers, , J. B. Edson, , and G. S. Young, 1996: Bulk parameterization of air-sea fluxes for Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment. J. Geophys. Res., 101 , 3747–3764.
Fairall, C. W., , T. Uttal, , D. Hazen, , J. Hare, , M. F. Cronin, , N. Bond, , and D. E. Veron, 2008: Observations of cloud radiation and surface forcing in equatorial eastern Pacific. J. Climate, 21 , 655–673.
Garay, M. J., , S. P. de Szoeke, , and C. M. Moroney, 2008: Comparison of marine stratocumulus cloud top heights in the southeastern Pacific retrieved from satellites with coincident ship-based observations. J. Geophys. Res., 113 , D18204. doi:10.1029/2008JD009975.
Garreaud, R. D., , and R. Munoz, 2004: The diurnal cycle of circulation and cloudiness over the subtropical southeast Pacific: A modeling study. J. Climate, 17 , 1699–1710.
Garreaud, R. D., , J. Rutlant, , J. Quintana, , J. Carrasco, , and P. Minnis, 2001: CIMAR-5: A snapshot of lower troposphere over the subtropical southeast Pacific. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82 , 2193–2207.
Gordon, C. T., , A. Rosati, , and R. Gudgel, 2000: Tropical sensitivity of a coupled model to specified ISCCP low clouds. J. Climate, 13 , 2239–2260.
Hare, J. E., , C. W. Fairall, , T. Uttal, , D. Hazen, , M. F. Cronin, , N. A. Bond, , and D. E. Veron, 2005: Cloud radiation and surface forcing in the equatorial eastern Pacific. NOAA Tech. Memo. OAR PSD 307, NOAA/ESRL, Boulder, CO, 64 pp.
Hosom, D. S., , R. A. Weller, , R. E. Payne, , and K. E. Prada, 1995: The IMET (improved meteorology) ship and buoy systems. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 12 , 527–540.
Iqbal, M., 1988: Spectral and total sun radiance under cloudless skies. Physical Climatology for Solar and Wind Energy, R. Guzzi and C. G. Justus, Eds., World Scientific, 196–242.
Klein, S. A., 1997: Synoptic variability of low-cloud properties and meteorological parameters in the subtropical trade wind boundary layer. J. Climate, 10 , 2018–2039.
Klein, S. A., , D. L. Hartmann, , and J. R. Norris, 1995: On the relationships among low-cloud structure, sea surface temperature, and atmospheric circulation in the summertime northeast Pacific. J. Climate, 8 , 1140–1155.
Kollias, P., , C. W. Fairall, , P. Zuidema, , J. Tomlinson, , and G. A. Wick, 2004: Observations of marine stratocumulus in SE Pacific during the PACS 2003 cruise. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31 , L22110. doi:10.1029/2004GL020751.
Leon, D. C., , Z. Wang, , and D. Liu, 2008: Climatology of drizzle in marine boundary layer clouds based on 1 year of data from CloudSat and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO). J. Geophys. Res., 113 , D00A14. doi:10.1029/2008JD009835.
Minnis, P., , and E. F. Harrison, 1984: Diurnal variability of regional cloud and clear-sky radiative parameters derived from GOES data. Part II: November 1978 cloud distribution. J. Appl. Meteor., 23 , 1012–1031.
Minnis, P., , P. W. Heck, , D. F. Young, , C. W. Fairall, , and J. B. Snider, 1992: Stratocumulus cloud properties derived from simultaneous satellite and island-based instrumentation during FIRE. J. Appl. Meteor., 31 , 317–339.
Mochizuki, T., , T. Miyama, , and T. Awaji, 2007: A simple diagnostic calculation of marine stratocumulus cloud cover for use in general circulation models. J. Geophys. Res., 112 , D06113. doi:10.1029/2006JD007223.
Norris, J. R., 1998a: Low cloud type over the ocean from surface observations. Part I: Relationship to surface meteorology and the vertical distribution of temperature and moisture. J. Climate, 11 , 369–382.
Norris, J. R., 1998b: Low cloud type over the ocean from surface observations. Part II: Geographical and seasonal variations. J. Climate, 11 , 383–403.
Payne, R. E., and Coauthors, 2002: A comparison of buoy meteorological systems. WHOI Tech. Rep. WHOI-2002-10, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 67 pp.
Randall, D. A., , J. A. Coakley, , D. H. Lenschow, , C. W. Fairall, , and R. A. Kropfli, 1984: Outlook for research on subtropical marine stratiform clouds. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 65 , 1290–1301.
Randall, D. A., and Coauthors, 2007: Climate models and their evaluation. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, S. Solomon et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 589–662.
Rasch, P. J., , and J. E. Kristjansson, 1998: A comparison of the CCM3 model climate using diagnosed and predicted condensate parameterizations. J. Climate, 11 , 1587–1614.
Reynolds, R. W., , N. A. Rayner, , T. M. Smith, , D. C. Stokes, , and W. Wang, 2002: An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate. J. Climate, 15 , 1609–1625.
Rossow, W. B., , L. C. Garder, , and A. A. Lacis, 1989: Global seasonal cloud variations from satellite radiance measurements. Part I: Sensitivity of analysis. J. Climate, 2 , 419–458.
Rozendaal, M. A., , C. B. Leovy, , and S. A. Klein, 1995: An observational study of diurnal variations of marine stratiform cloud. J. Climate, 8 , 1795–1809.
Serpetzoglou, E., , B. A. Albrecht, , P. Kollias, , and C. W. Fairall, 2008: Boundary layer, cloud, and drizzle variability in the southeast Pacific stratocumulus regime. J. Climate, 21 , 6191–6214.
Sharon, T. M., , B. A. Albrecht, , H. H. Jonsson, , P. Minnis, , M. M. Khaiyer, , T. M. van Reken, , J. Seinfeld, , and R. Flagan, 2006: Aerosols and cloud microphysical characteristics of rifts and gradients in maritime stratocumulus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 63 , 983–997.
Slingo, A., , K. I. Hodges, , and G. J. Robinson, 2004: Simulation of the diurnal cycle in a climate model and its evaluation using data from METEOSAT 7. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 130 , 1449–1467.
Slingo, J. M., 1980: A cloud parameterization scheme derived from GATE data for use with a numerical model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 106 , 747–770.
Wang, J., , W. B. Rossow, , T. Uttal, , and M. Rozendaal, 1999: Variability of cloud vertical structure during ASTEX observed from combination of rawinsonde, radar, ceilometer and satellite. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127 , 2484–2502.
Wittenberg, A. T., , A. Rosati, , N. C. Lau, , and J. J. Ploshay, 2006: GFDL’s CM2 global coupled climate models. Part III: Tropical Pacific climate and ENSO. J. Climate, 19 , 698–722.
Wood, R., , and C. S. Bretherton, 2006: On the relationship between stratiform low cloud cover and lower tropospheric stability. J. Climate, 19 , 6425–6432.
Wylie, D., , D. L. Jackson, , W. P. Menzel, , and J. J. Bates, 2005: Trends in global cloud cover in two decades of HIRS observations. J. Climate, 18 , 3021–3031.
Yuter, S. E., , Y. L. Sierra, , and R. A. Houze Jr., 2000: The 1997 Pan American Climate Studies Tropical Eastern Pacific Process Study. Part II: Stratocumulus region. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81 , 483–490.