We thank the University of Victoria staff for support in the use of their coupled climate model. This research was supported by the Australian Research Council and the Australian Antarctic Science Program. We also thank Steve Griffios for his helpful comments.
Boris, J. P., , and D. L. Book, 1973: Flux-corrected transport. Part I: SHASTA: A fluid transport algorithm that works. J. Comput. Phys., 11 , 38–69.
Danabasoglu, G., , J. C. McWilliams, , and P. R. Gent, 1994: The role of mesoscale tracer transports in the global ocean circulation. Science, 264 , 1123–1126.
Duffy, P. B., , P. Eltgroth, , A. J. Bourgois, , and K. Caldeira, 1995: Effect of improved subgrid scale transport of tracers on uptake of bomb radiocarbon in the GFDL ocean general circulation model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 22 , 1065–1068.
England, M. H., , and A. C. Hirst, 1997: Chlorofluorocarbon uptake in a World Ocean model. 2. Sensitivity to surface thermohaline forcing and subsurface mixing parameterizations. J. Geophys. Res., 102 , 15709–15731.
England, M. H., , and S. Rahmstorf, 1999: Sensitivity of ventilation rates and radiocarbon uptake to subgrid-scale mixing in ocean models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29 , 2802–2827.
Gent, P. R., , and J. C. McWilliams, 1990: Isopycnal mixing in ocean general circulation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 20 , 150–155.
Gent, P. R., , J. Willebrand, , T. J. McDougall, , and J. C. McWilliams, 1995: Parameterizing eddy-induced tracer transports in ocean circulation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25 , 463–474.
Gerdes, R., , C. Köberle, , and J. Willebrand, 1991: The influence of numerical advection schemes on the results of ocean general circulation models. Climate Dyn., 5 , 211–226.
Gregory, J. M., , O. A. Saenko, , and A. J. Weaver, 2003: The role of the Atlantic freshwater balance in the hysteresis of the meridional overturning circulation. Climate Dyn., 21 , 707–717. doi:10.1007/s00382-003-0359-8.
Ledwell, J., , A. Watson, , and C. Law, 1993: Evidence for slow mixing across the pycnocline from an open-ocean tracer-release experiment. Nature, 364 , 701–703.
Manabe, S., , and R. J. Stouffer, 1994: Multiple-century response of a coupled ocean–atmosphere model to an increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide. J. Climate, 7 , 5–23.
Pacanowski, R., 1995: MOM2 documentation user’s guide and reference manual. GFDL Ocean Group Tech. Rep. 3, NOAA/GFDL, Princeton, NJ, 232 pp.
Rahmstorf, S., 1996: On the freshwater forcing and transport of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Climate Dyn., 12 , 799–811.
Saenko, O. A., , and A. J. Weaver, 2003: Atlantic deep circulation controlled by freshening in the Southern Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 , 1754. doi:10.1029/2003GL017681.
Saenko, O. A., , A. J. Weaver, , and J. M. Gregory, 2003: On the link between the two modes of the ocean thermohaline circulation and the formation of global-scale water masses. J. Climate, 16 , 2797–2801.
Sijp, W. P., , and M. H. England, 2004: Effect of the Drake Passage throughflow on global climate. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34 , 1254–1266.
Sijp, W. P., , and M. H. England, 2006: Sensitivity of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation and its stability to basin-scale variations in vertical mixing. J. Climate, 19 , 5467–5478.
Sijp, W. P., , M. Bates, , and M. H. England, 2006: Can isopycnal mixing control the stability of the thermohaline circulation in ocean climate models? J. Climate, 19 , 5637–5651.
Sørensen, J. V. T., , J. Ribbe, , and G. Shaffer, 2001: Sensitivity of a World Ocean GCM to changes in subsurface mixing parameterization. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31 , 3295–3311.
Visbeck, M., , J. Marshall, , T. Haine, , and M. Spall, 1997: Specification of eddy transfer coefficients in coarse-resolution ocean circulation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27 , 381–402.
Weaver, A. J., and Coauthors, 2001: The UVic Earth System Climate Model: Model description, climatology, and applications to past, present and future climates. Atmos.–Ocean, 39 , 1067–1109.