CGF and PJK acknowledge support from the Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences Grant 506. SCH is supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. JC was supported by NSF Grant ATM-0443512. We thank GFDL for the model code and technical support and Dr. Sabine Stanley for providing computational resources. The AM2-HI and AM2-LO GWD simulations were performed on the Sunnyvale cluster at the Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics. We thank three anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments.
Alexander, M. J., , and T. J. Dunkerton, 1999: A spectral parameterization of mean-flow forcing due to breaking gravity waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 4167–4182.
Anderson, J., and Coauthors, 2004: The new GFDL global atmosphere and land model AM2–LM2: Evaluation with prescribed SST simulations. J. Climate, 17 , 4641–4673.
Austin, J., , and R. J. Wilson, 2006: Ensemble simulations of the decline and recovery of stratospheric ozone. J. Geophys. Res., 111 , D16314. doi:10.1029/2005JD006907.
Baldwin, M. P., , D. B. Stephenson, , D. W. J. Thompson, , T. J. Dunkerton, , A. J. Charlton, , and A. O’Neill, 2003: Stratospheric memory and skill of extended-range weather forecasts. Science, 301 , 636–640.
Charlton, A. J., , A. O’Neill, , W. Lahoz, , A. Massacand, , and P. Berrisford, 2004: Sensitivity of tropospheric forecasts to stratospheric initial conditions in both hemispheres. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 130 , 1771–1792.
Charney, J. G., , and P. G. Drazin, 1961: Propagation of planetary-scale disturbances from lower into upper atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 66 , 83–109.
Cohen, J., , and D. Entekhabi, 1999: Eurasian snow cover variability and Northern Hemisphere climate predictability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26 , 345–348.
Cohen, J., , and C. Fletcher, 2007: Improved skill of Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature predictions based on land–atmosphere fall anomalies. J. Climate, 20 , 4118–4132.
Cohen, J., , M. Barlow, , P. J. Kushner, , and K. Saito, 2007: Stratosphere–troposphere coupling and links with Eurasian land surface variability. J. Climate, 20 , 5335–5343.
Delworth, T. L., and Coauthors, 2006: GFDL’s CM2 global coupled climate models. Part I: Formulation and simulation characteristics. J. Climate, 19 , 643–674.
Deser, C., , R. A. Tomas, , and S. Peng, 2007: The transient atmospheric circulation response to North Atlantic SST and sea ice anomalies. J. Climate, 20 , 4751–4767.
Fletcher, C. G., , P. J. Kushner, , and J. Cohen, 2007: Stratospheric control of the extratropical circulation response to surface forcing. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34 , L21802. doi:10.1029/2007GL031626.
Frei, A., , and D. A. Robinson, 1998: Evaluation of snow extent and its variability in the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project. J. Geophys. Res., 103 , 8859–8871.
Frei, A., , J. A. Miller, , and D. A. Robinson, 2003: Improved simulations of snow extent in the second phase of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP-2). J. Geophys. Res., 108 , 4369. doi:10.1029/2002JD003030.
Gerber, E. J., , S. Voronin, , and L. M. Polvani, 2008: Testing the annular mode autocorrelation time scale in simple atmospheric general circulation models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136 , 1523–1536.
Gong, G., , D. Entekhabi, , and J. Cohen, 2003: Modeled Northern Hemisphere winter climate response to realistic Siberian snow anomalies. J. Climate, 16 , 3917–3931.
Hardiman, S. C., , P. J. Kushner, , and J. Cohen, 2008: Investigating the effect of fall Eurasian snow cover on winter climate in General Circulation Models. J. Geophys. Res., 113 , D21123. doi:10.1029/2008JD010623.
Hoskins, B. J., , and D. Karoly, 1981: The steady linear response of a spherical atmosphere to thermal and orographic forcing. J. Atmos. Sci., 38 , 1179–1196.
Kushner, P., and Coauthors, 2007: The SPARC DynVar project: A SPARC project on the dynamics and variability of the coupled stratosphere-troposphere system. SPARC Newsletter, No. 29, World Climate Research Programme, 9–14.
Kushnir, Y., , W. Robinson, , P. Chang, , and A. Robertson, 2006: The physical basis for predicting Atlantic sector seasonal-to-interannual climate variability. J. Climate, 19 , 5949–5970.
Limpasuvan, V., , D. W. J. Thompson, , and D. L. Hartmann, 2004: The life cycle of the Northern Hemisphere sudden stratospheric warmings. J. Climate, 17 , 2584–2596.
Limpasuvan, V., , D. L. Hartmann, , D. W. J. Thompson, , K. Jeev, , and Y. L. Yung, 2005: Stratosphere-troposphere evolution during polar vortex intensification. J. Geophys. Res., 110 , D24101. doi:10.1029/2005JD006302.
Newman, P. A., , E. R. Nash, , and J. E. Rosenfield, 2001: What controls the temperature of the Arctic stratosphere during the spring? J. Geophys. Res., 106 , (D17). 19999–20010.
Norton, W. A., 2003: Sensitivity of Northern Hemisphere surface climate to simulation of the stratospheric polar vortex. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 , 1627. doi:10.1029/2003GL016958.
Panagiotopoulos, F., , M. Shahgedanova, , A. Hannachi, , and D. B. Stephenson, 2005: Observed trends and teleconnections of the Siberian high: A recently declining center of action. J. Climate, 18 , 1411–1422.
Peng, S., , W. A. Robinson, , and S. Li, 2003: Mechanisms for the NAO response to the North Atlantic tripole. J. Climate, 16 , 1987–2004.
Perlwitz, J., , and N. Harnik, 2003: Observational evidence of a stratospheric influence on the troposphere by planetary wave reflection. J. Climate, 16 , 3011–3026.
Polvani, L. M., , and D. W. Waugh, 2004: Upward wave activity flux as a precursor to extreme stratospheric events and subsequent anomalous surface weather regimes. J. Climate, 17 , 3548–3554.
Ring, M. J., , and R. A. Plumb, 2007: Forced annular mode patterns in a simple atmospheric general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 64 , 3611–3626.
Shaw, T. A., , M. Sigmond, , T. G. Shepherd, , and J. F. Scinocca, 2009: Sensitivity of simulated climate to conservation of momentum in gravity wave drag parameterization. J. Climate, in press.
Shepherd, T. G., , and T. A. Shaw, 2004: The angular momentum constraint on climate sensitivity and downward influence in the middle atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 61 , 2899–2908.
Shepherd, T. G., , K. Semeniuk, , and J. N. Koshyk, 1996: Sponge layer feedbacks in middle-atmosphere models. J. Geophys. Res., 101 , (D18). 23447–23464.
Siegmund, P., 2005: Stratospheric polar cap mean height and temperature as extended-range weather predictors. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133 , 2436–2448.
Sigmond, M., , J. F. Scinocca, , and P. J. Kushner, 2008: Impact of the stratosphere on tropospheric climate change. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35 , L12706. doi:10.1029/2008GL033573.
Thompson, D. W. J., , and J. M. Wallace, 2000: Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part I: Month-to-month variability. J. Climate, 13 , 1000–1016.