We thank Prof. Randy Watts, the chief scientist of the KESS-05 cruise; the captain and crew of the R/V Roger Revelle for support for atmospheric soundings; and G. Takagaki, M. Roxy, and A. Goto for their participation in the cruise survey. Drs. M. Yamamoto and J. Furumoto of the Shigaraki Middle and Upper Atmosphere Observatory, Kyoto University, kindly lent us the sounding system and provided practical advices on the usage. Advice from Dr. K. Ishikawa, Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, and Prof. Y. Fujiyoshi, Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, was helpful in executing our observations. This work was supported in part by a grant-in-aid for scientific research defrayed by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (17340137, 15340153, and 18204044), the Sumitomo Foundation (043426), the Japan Agency for Marine–Earth Science and Technology, the U.S. National Science Foundation, and the National Aeronautic and Space Administration. The first author conducted this work at IPRC, University of Hawaii, on a sabbatical leave from Hokkaido University. Graphic outputs were made by use of GrADS.
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